Fine Chemical Technologies

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Vol 12, No 6 (2017)
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5-31 384
The results of many years of scientific research in the field of physico-chemical biology and its most important direction - lipidology, conducted by the leading scientific school under the leadership of Academician RAS Vitaly I. Shvets, are reported. On the creation of synthetic, biotechnological methods for obtaining lipids, with the possibility of their practical use by designing on this basis effective diagnostic and medicinal products and application in practical medicine. The further development and use of methods of bionanotechnology for the development of modern medicines for directed action on the basis of increasing the effectiveness of classical drugs by their incorporation into nanocontainers is described. It is reported on the development of technologies for obtaining nanoscale forms of drugs, the study of their pharmacological properties and use in medical practice. Information is provided on the preparation of liposomal antitumor, hepatoprotective, anti-tuberculosis, cardiac preparations based on the proposed echnologies, the study of properties and the use for therapeutic purposes. The technologies for obtaining and conducting biological studies of nanoforms based on copolymers of lactic and glycolic acids of antineoplastic, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial and a number of other drugs have been developed: It has been shown that the use of nanosized drugs can lead to a significant increase in the pharmacological effect due to various factors. It was noted that during the construction of the drug for the treatment of Parkinson's disease, the contents of liposomes loaded with dopamine pass through the blood-brain barrier almost 100 times better than individual dopamine molecules. Finding a substance in nanoparticles reduces its toxicity primarily due to the effect of "passive targeting". The prolonged action of medicinal substances enclosed in nanoparticles is discussed, due to their gradual release. It is noted that the targeted delivery of nanoparticles makes it possible to increase the effectiveness of the drugs by an order of magnitude. It is reported on the drug-delivery technology in the field of oncology and the use of the method of selective delivery of cytostatics to tumor tissues using the receptor-mediated endocytosis. Biological and pharmacological studies based on nanopoporous silicon on the creation of liposomal drugs for the treatment of cancer, cardiological pathologies, tuberculosis are carried out. Data on the work of the scientific and educational center for training specialists in the field of biotechnology and pharmacy are given.
32-38 262
The method of reversed-phase HPLC with diode-array and mass-spectrometric detection was explored to determine the qualitative composition of red cabbage anthocyanins. Mono- and diacylated derivatives of cyanidin-3,5-diglycosides with a complex structure of the substituent in position were found, as well as non-esterified compounds. The acylation acids were paracoumaric, ferulic and sinapic. Quantitative analysis was performed according to a simplified spectrophotometric method: absorbance measurement at pH 4.5 was excluded. The measurement showed that the level of anthocyanins accumulation is as high as 0.100 g of anthocyanins per 100 g of raw plant material (as cyanidin-3-glucoside chloride equivalent). Analysis of electronic spectra of the extract at different pH revealed the existence of some basic structures with absorbance maxima shifted bathochromically as compared to the spectrum of flavylium structure. The existence of one basic form at pH 4.5 forced us to exclude absorbance measurement at pH 4.5 during quantitative anthocyanin determination. Thus, the possibility of obtaining some differently colored encapsulated forms was proved. Because of relative instability of non-flavylium forms of anthocyanins the freeze drying technique was used to prepare six differently colored forms of 3% anthocyanins encapsulated in maltodextrin. The decrease of anthocyanins contents at drying did not exceed 30%, while no statistically proved loss of anthocyanins was found at storage in a refrigerator during more than six months.
39-45 243
The composition, structure and specific features of urate calculi are discussed in the article. It was shown that they consist of 95% of uric acid and its salts on an average by the X-ray phase and energy dispersive analysis of a number of samples extracted from the urinary tract of 24 urological patients. The mechanism of formation of urate stones is considered. It is noted that urate stones are formed at a urine under pH below 5.5. The factors reducing the development of urinary urolythiasis and uraturia are indicated. The drugs commonly used for the treatment and prevention of urate nephrolithiasis are listed. The role of phytotherapy is underlined in the treatment of urolithiasis in general and urate nephrolithiasis in particular. It is concluded that the composition of plant compositions should include natural compounds of the alkaloid class. The most promising compositions of medicinal plants were determined, and the effect of herbal extracts of various compositions on the pH of the solution and the loss of stone mass


46-70 265
Approaching a hypothetical thermodynamically reversible process is one of the main directions of energy saving in distillation. In practice, this is achieved by the use of systems with coupled thermal and material flows (STMP). Such systems have long been used in the separation of zeotropic mixtures. As follows from the analysis of literature data, they save energy costs by up to 30%. Recently, it has been revealed that the use of such systems is possible, expedient and energetically advantageous for separating the close-boiling and azeotropic mixtures by extractive distillation (ED). The article considers the main approaches to the synthesis of distillation schemes, including systems with STMP: 1) a method based on the construction of a "superstructure"; 2) a method based on the concept of thermodynamically equivalent configurations; 3) an evolutionary algorithm; 4) a method based on the transformation of distillation scheme graphs. As the analysis of the literature has shown, the first three methods are sufficiently well developed only for the synthesis of distillation schemes with STMP to separate zeotropic mixtures. There are a relatively small number of publications that consider the generation of ED schemes with STMP based on the concept of thermodynamically equivalent configurations for distillation of specific binary mixtures. The only current system approach to the synthesis of ED schemes with coupled thermal and material flows for multicomponent mixtures is the method of graphs (algorithm 4). At present, the first step has been taken to implement it in the form of a computer program. Thus, the article presents the current state of the problem of synthesizing highly effective, energy-saving distillation technologies, including extractive distillation, based on the analysis of publications over the past 20-25 years.


71-76 450
The luminol-hydrogen peroxide chemiluminescent system is widely used for the creation of diagnostic systems, for chemical analysis, for studying the kinetics and mechanisms of chemical reactions, for the creation of special and emergency light sources, and for monitoring living systems. However, the use of the luminol-hydrogen peroxide chemiluminescent system is limited by the fact that there are almost no ways of managing the reaction. The introduction of organized molecular systems into the luminol-hydrogen peroxide chemiluminescent system can create an additional channel for controlling chemiluminescent reactions. The luminol-hydrogen peroxide system was not previously studied in various classes of hydrocarbon and perfluorinated micellar solutions. This work was the first to study the effect of cationic, anionic and nonionic hydrocarbon surface-active substances (cetyltrimethylammonium bromide, sodium decyl sulfate, sodium dodecyl sulfate, triton X 100) and perfluorinated surface-active substances (FT-135 and FT-248) on the chemiluminescent systems luminol-hydrogen peroxide-potassium hexacyanoferrate(III) and luminol-hydrogen peroxide-copper(II) sulphate. The systems retain the ability to chemiluminescence in the presence of a surfactant. Cationic surfactants lower the intensity of chemiluminescence, and anionic surfactants increase the intensity of chemiluminescence. The introduction of a surfactant into the system allows increasing the range of dependence of the chemiluminescence intensity on the catalyst concentration. Kinetic curves of the growth and decay of chemiluminescence were measured in the systems. The rate constants of the chemiluminescence decay were measured in the framework of the first-order kinetics model.
77-82 255
Kinetics of catalytic esterification of glycerol with butanoic acid on model systems was studied. Reaction orders for the reactants (butanoic acid and glycerol) were determined. They are close to 1.It was shown that the reaction order with respect to the catalyst - orthophosphoric acid - in regions where its concentration is above 0.1 mol/l is equal to zero. The estimated value of activation energy is 51.9± 8.0 kJ/mol. The results of the experiment can be used to create an industrial technological process for the synthesis of glycerol tributyrate. This compound can be used as an alternative non-phthalate plasticizer for articles made of PVC. The obtained kinetic model was validated on glycerol-containing waste of the biodiesel synthesis from renewable raw materials. The recycling of the by-product in the biofuel production with obtaining plasticizing compositions for the polymer industry can be developed on the basis of the studies.


83-90 277
Synthesis and study of complex chalcogenides in the low oxidation state opens unexpected new opportunities of studying some fundamental problems of condensed matter physics. Dichalcogenides of transition metals, i.e., compounds with the general formula MX2, where M is molybdenum, tungsten, rhenium etc., and X is sulphur, selenium or tellurium, are especially interesting. These dichalcogenides find applications in optoelectronic devices, radiophotonics, in laser physics, communication technology, etc. This study contains a survey of literature concerning the synthesis of sulphides of transition elements from different groups of the Periodic table in low oxidation states. A method of direct hightemperature synthesis of ReS2 from source components has been proposed and implemented. The synthesized compound was identified by the X-ray fluorescence, method of photoelectron spectroscopy and IR absorption spectroscopy. We show that rhenium(IV) disulphide crystallizes in CdI2 structural type. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy shows that rhenium in the oxidation state of four is present. IR spectrum shows that rhenium(IV) disulphide structure in contrast to molybdenum(IV) disulphide is characterized by a greater deformation of the layers forming the crystal structure.


91-97 202
The purpose of this work was to develop a modified polymeric composite mixture for the manufacture of the outer shell of a ship's cable operating under conditions of aggressive environment and increased fire hazard. The performed research resulted in the analysis of the basic polymeric composite mixtures. A complex of the most important technical and operational characteristics of the cable shell was formed. These characteristics are wear resistance, oil resistance and fire safety. On the basis of these assumptions a new polymer composition based on chloropolyethylene TYRIN CM 3630E with an increased oxygen index and improved physical and mechanical properties was developed. Modification of the mixture was carried out by increasing the mass fraction of flame-retardant additives and adding stabilizers to the mixture. Thanks to a balanced combination of technical and operational properties the use of the developed compound will increase the cable service life and operating time and will reduce the overall weight of the cable by using conductors of a smaller cross-section at a higher operating temperature.
98-107 240
The study of problems related to the modernization of the oil industry at the end of the 19th - beginning of the 20th centuries allows asserting that the rapid technical re-equipment of oil refineries was due to the targeted state scientific and technical policy that was being implemented at that time, as well as to the highly effective system of privileges (patents) and mass promotion of technical knowledge and achievements. Besides, the role of entrepreneurs that supported individual inventors and research companies providing "brain gain" and investment in Russia was also significant. This contributed to the rapid introduction of technical innovations in production. Thus, the transition to extensive use of oil as industrial fuel contributed to a more intensive development of the factory industry. Modernization of the oil industry became a powerful incentive and, at the same time, a part of Russian industrialization. One of the most successful and quickly implemented innovations that were at the same time crucial for the changing nature of the Russian energy sector and the economy in general was the invention of "Nobel burner". It seemed that this solved the problem of oil residues. However, it proved to be extremely uneconomical to burn large amounts of oil fuel under the boilers of steam engines. Thus, "oil" energetics formed. The "oil imbalance" resulted in the suppression of the coal industry of the country. At the same time identifying the causes of the fuel crisis as one of the most important factors that led to the collapse of the Russian Empire allowed us to formulate a conclusion that the decline in oil production and increased demand for fuel oil in the First World War by the military and metallurgical industries, railways, the shortage of fuel and rising prices led to the disorganization of the whole economy, disruptions in the supply of food, raw materials and weapons.

ISSN 2410-6593 (Print)
ISSN 2686-7575 (Online)