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The double-blind peer-reviewed scientific and technical journal Tonkie Khimicheskie Tekhnologii [Fine Chemical Technologies] highlights the modern achievements concerning fundamental and applied research in the fine chemicals industry. It is a forum for cooperation between Russian and international scientists. Tonkie Khimicheskie Tekhnologii [Fine Chemical Technologies] publishes the results of original experimental and theoretical research in the form of original articles, brief reports, and authors' reviews, as well as forecasting and analytical articles in the field of fine chemical technologies and related sciences.

Main topics of the journal:

- Theoretical bases of chemical technologies;
- Chemistry and technology of organic substances;
- Biochemistry and biotechnology;
- Chemistry and technology of medicinal compounds and biologically active substances;
- Synthesis and processing of polymers and polymeric composites;
- Chemistry and technology of inorganic materials;
- Analytical methods in chemistry and chemical technology;
- Mathematical methods and information systems in chemical technology.

Tonkie Khimicheskie Tekhnologii [Fine Chemical Technologies] has been accepted for Scopus since September 2021.

Tonkie Khimicheskie Tekhnologii [Fine Chemical Technologies] is included in the database of Russian scientific journals, i.e., Russian Science Citation Index (RSCI), hosted on the Web of Science platform. It is reviewed in the Chemical Abstracts international database and is a part of Ulrich's Periodicals Directory as well as the Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ). The journal is included in the Science Index on the eLIBRARY platform.

The journal is included in the list of leading peer-reviewed scientific journals and editions, approved by the State Commission for Academic Degrees and Titles of the Russian Federation.

A double-blind peer review method is mandatory for processing of all scientific manuscripts submitted to the Editorial Board of Tonkie Khimicheskie Tekhnologii [Fine Chemical Technologies]. All manuscripts are accepted for publication based on the results of the peer review. Among the reviewers are leading Russian and international scientists of academic and industrial chemical and chemical-technology institutes in Russia, Germany, Portugal, Poland, Colombia, Finland, Kazakhstan, and Belarus.

Materials may be submitted either in English or in Russian. Articles submitted to the Editorial Office in English are published only in English. The Publisher provides full English translation of articles written in Russian free of charge. Russian and English versions of article are published on the journal’s website simultaneously. Articles are translated into English by qualified translators, who specialize in chemistry and chemical technology. To improve the quality of articles written in English, the Publisher cooperates with Enago, a company that provides high-quality scientific editing services by native English speakers. All articles written in English are edited by Enago experts.

Publication in Tonkie Khimicheskie Tekhnologii [Fine Chemical Technologies] is free of charge.

The journal does not have any article processing charges.

The journal does not have any article submission charges.

Publication frequency: bimonthly.

All articles published by Tonkie Khimicheskie Tekhnologii [Fine Chemical Technologies] are licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. This permits anyone to copy, redistribute, remix, transmit, and/or adapt the work, provided the original work and its accompanying source are appropriately cited.

The Founder and Publisher of the journal is MIREA - Russian Technological University (RTU MIREA). RTU MIREA is a member of the Association of Scientific Editors and Publishers (ASEP). Until 2016, the Founder and Publisher of the journal was M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University of Fine Chemical Technologies. The journal was founded in 2006. The former name of the journal was Vestnik MITHT (2006–2014) (ISSN 1819-1487).

The Publisher's address is 78, Vernadskogo pr., Moscow 119454, Russian Federation.

The journal is published in two forms: online (ISSN online 2686-7575) and print (ISSN print 2410-6395).

Tonkie Khimicheskie Tekhnologii [Fine Chemical Technologies] is an open access journal. All articles are freely available to readers immediately after online publication. In the print form, the journal is distributed on the territory of the Russian Federation and CIS by subscription. The subscription index of the Pressa Rossii United Catalog is 36924.

The registration certificate is ПИ № ФС 77-74580, issued on December 14, 2018 by the Federal Service for Supervision of Communications, Information Technology, and Mass Media of Russia.

Current issue

Vol 16, No 6 (2021)
View or download the full issue PDF (Russian)

THEORETICAL BASES OF CHEMICAL TECHNOLOGY 

457-464 9
Abstract

Objectives. The purpose of the paper is to compare the adequacy of mathematical models of vapor–liquid equilibrium (VLE) and their ability to reproduce the phase behavior of the ternary system benzene–cyclohexane–chlorobenzene using different experimental data sets to evaluate binary interaction parameters.

Methods. The research methodologies were mathematical modeling of VLE in the Aspen Plus V.10.0 software package using activity coefficient models (Non-Random Two-Liquid (NRTL), Wilson) and the Universal quasichemical Functional-group Activity Coefficients (UNIFAC) group model, which allows for independent information. For the benzene–cyclohexane–chlorobenzene ternary system, the use of the NRTL equation is warranted because it provides a better description of the VLE experimental data.

Results. The diagram construction of the constant volatility of cyclohexane relative to benzene lines revealed three topological structures. Only one of them can be considered reliable because it corresponds to the experimental data and coincides with the UNIFAC model diagram constructed based on independent UNIFAC model data. The results indicate that to study systems containing components with similar properties, it is necessary to improve the description quality of the available data sets (the relative error should not exceed 1.5%).

Conclusions. The reproduction of the thermodynamic features of various manifolds in the composition simplex obtained by processing direct VLE data can be used to supplement the adequacy of the model. For the cyclohexane–benzene–chlorobenzene system, the best NRTL equation parameters are those regressed from the extensive experimental VLE data available in the literature for the ternary system as a whole.

CHEMISTRY AND TECHNOLOGY OF MEDICINAL COMPOUNDS AND BIOLOGICALLY ACTIVE SUBSTANCES 

465-475 7
Abstract

Objectives. The study aimed to analyze the current antiseptics and disinfectants, explore the possibility of synthesizing various antiseptics including oligohexamethylene guanidine hydrochloride (OHMG-HC) using microfluidic technology, and investigate the main synthesis parameters affecting the properties of the resulting product.

Methods. This article presented a review of literature sources associated with investigations of antimicrobial resistance, the uses of agents based on polyhexamethylene guanidine hydrochloride, oligohexamethylene guanidine hydrochloride, and other salts, obained using modern synthesis technologies with microreactors.

Results. The relevance of developing production technologies for the “OHMG-HC branched” substance was determined. The microfluidic method for the synthesis of polymers, and its application prospects for obtaining the target substance were compared with the existing methods. Advantages of the microfluidic method were indicated.

Conclusions. Microreactor technologies allow for more accurate control of the conditions of the polycondensation reaction of the starting monomers and increase the yield and selectivity of the oligomers obtained, leading to an increase in the product purity and process efficiency, in contrast with other known methods. The use of microreactor technologies for the synthesis of branched oligohexamethylene guanidine hydrochloride products is a promising strategy.

BIOCHEMISTRY AND BIOTECHNOLOGY 

476-489 7
Abstract

Objectives. To evaluate the effect of cellular genes FLT4, Nup98, and Nup205 on the reproduction of the influenza A virus in A549 human lung cancer cell line.

Methods. The work was carried out using the equipment of the center for collective use of the I.I. Mechnikov Research Institute of Vaccines and Sera (Russia). The virus-containing fluid was collected within three days from the moment of transfection and infection and the intensity of viral reproduction was assessed by viral titration and hemagglutination reaction. The viral RNA concentration was determined by real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). To calculate statistically significant differences between groups, the nonparametric Mann–Whitney test was used.

Results. In cells treated with small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) targeted at FLT4, Nup98, and Nup205 genes, a significant decrease in their expression and indicators of viral reproduction (virus titer, hemagglutinating activity, viral RNA concentration) was observed at a multiplicity of infection (MOI) = 0.1. Additionally, it was found that a decrease in the expression of target genes using siRNA does not lead to a significant decrease in cell survival. The viral titer in cells treated with siRNA FLT4.2, Nup98.1, and Nup205 on the first day was lower by an average of 1.0 lg, and on the second and third days, by 2.2–2.3 lg, compared to cells treated with nonspecific siRNA. During real-time RT-PCR, a significant decrease in the concentration of viral RNA was observed with siRNA Nup98.1 (up to 190 times) and Nup205 (up to 30 times) on the first day, 26 and 29 times on the second day, and 6 and 30 times on the third day, respectively. For FLT4.2 siRNA, the number of viral RNA copies decreased by 23, 18, and 16 times on the first, second, and third days. Similar results were obtained when determining the hemagglutinating activity of the virus. The hemagglutinating activity on the third day most strongly decreased in cells treated with siRNA Nup205 and FLT4.2 (16 times). In cells treated with siRNA FLT4.1, Nup98.1, and Nup98.2, hemagglutinating activity decreased by 8 times.

Conclusions. In the present study, three cellular genes (FLT4, Nup98, and Nup205) were identified—the decrease in the expression of which effectively suppresses viral reproduction— and the original siRNA sequences were obtained. The results obtained are important for creating therapeutic and prophylactic medication, whose action is based on the RNA interference mechanism.

SYNTHESIS AND PROCESSING OF POLYMERS AND POLYMERIC COMPOSITES 

490-501 7
Abstract

Objectives. To create stable artificial polymer suspensions with a positive charge of particles based on polycarbonate and polymethyl methacrylate using cationic surfactants and organosilicon surfactants.

Methods. The size of droplets and polymer suspension particles was determined by photon correlation spectroscopy (dynamic light scattering) using a Zetasizer NanoZS laser particle analyzer (Malvern, UK).

Results. Domestic cationic surfactants Katamin-AB and Azol-129 were found to be capable of producing stable artificial polycarbonate and polymethyl methacrylate suspensions. Based on the polymer, the optimal surfactant concentration was 6 wt %. The effect of polymer concentration in solution on the stability and particle size of final polymer suspensions was shown. It was determined that the polymer concentration in the solution should not exceed 10%. When obtaining a highly dispersed suspension during dispersion, a higher concentration causes an increase in the viscosity of emulsions. As a result of a synergistic effect formation, we used mixtures of cationic surfactants (Katamin-AB/Azol-138 and Azol-129/Azol-138) to enhance the stability of the final polymer suspensions. The optimal surfactant ratio was 9:1. The total concentration of the mixture is 10 wt %, based on the polymer. Polymer suspensions were stabilized with each of 2:1 mixtures of cationic surfactants Katamin-AB and Azol-129 withan organosilicon surfactant U-851. The total mixture concentration was 9 wt %, based on the polymer.

Conclusions. New methods of producing artificial polycarbonate and polymethyl methacrylate suspensions in the presence of domestically produced cationic surfactants, as well cationicorganosilicon surfactants mixtures, were proposed. The colloidal-chemical properties of the obtained polymer suspensions were considered. It was found that using a 2:1 mixture of cationic and organosilicon surfactants produces polymer suspensions that are stable during production and storage.

CHEMISTRY AND TECHNOLOGY OF INORGANIC MATERIALS 

502-511 7
Abstract

Objectives. The study aimed to develop new methods for the synthesis of cobalt ferrite (CoFe2O4), which is a precursor for the synthesis of CoFe2O4-based functional materials, as well as to study the physicochemical properties of the obtained phases.

Methods. Two methods were used for the synthesis of CoFe2O4: (1) heterophase interaction of hydrated iron oxide with cobalt(II, III) oxide and (2) heterophase interaction of hydrated iron oxide with an aqueous solution of cobalt(II) sulfate (CCo = 0.147 mol/L, solid/liquid = 1:43). In both cases, the precursor was hydrated iron oxide (Fe2O3, 84.4 wt %), which was obtained by the heterophase interaction of iron(III) chloride with a concentrated ammonia solution (6.0–9.5 mol/L). The resulting intermediate products were subjected to thermal treatment at 750 °C (synthesis 1) and at 900 °C (synthesis 2) for 10–30 h in increments of 10 h. The synthesized phases and products of their thermolysis were studied by differential thermal analysis and differential thermogravimetry (DTA–DTG), X-ray diffraction analysis (XRDA), and granulometry.

Results. The hydrated iron oxide sample remained amorphous even up to the crystallization temperature of 445 °C, which corresponds to the exothermic effect on the DTA curve. Further heating led to the α-modification of iron(III) oxide of the hexagonal system (a = b = 5.037 ± 0.002 Å; c = 13.74 ± 0.01 Å), which has an average particle size of 1.1 μm. XRDA results showed that a synthesis temperature of 750 °C (synthesis 1) and a heat treatment duration of 30 h were sufficient for the formation of a single-phase cobalt ferrite (a = 8.388 ± 0.002 Å) with an average particle diameter of 1.9 μm. For synthesis 2, a higher temperature of 900 °C was used because sample weight loss (about 12.5%) was observed in the temperature range of 720–810 °C based on the DTA results, which was due to the removal of SO2 and SO3. Moreover, when synthesis temperature and duration were at 900 °C and 30 h, respectively, CoFe2O4 with a = 8.389 ± 0.002 Å was formed. The results of the granulometric analysis showed that particles of different diameters were formed. The smallest particle size (1.5 μm) of cobalt ferrite was obtained by the heterophase interaction of hydrated iron(III) oxide (Fe2O3, 84.4 wt %) with an aqueous solution of cobalt sulfate with CCo = 0.147 mol/L. Conclusions. Depending on the method used for the synthesis of cobalt ferrite, particles of different diameters are formed. The smallest particle size of cobalt ferrite was obtained from the heterophase interaction of hydrated iron(III) oxide with an aqueous solution of cobalt(II) sulfate.

ANALYTICAL METHODS IN CHEMISTRY AND CHEMICAL TECHNOLOGY 

512-525 7
Abstract

Objectives. To determine the ion mobility of N-methylimidazole, establish the structure of ions corresponding to characteristic signals, and determine the detection limit of N-methylimidazole on the ion-drift detector Kerber.

Methods. Ion mobility spectrometry was used to study the ionization processes. The enthalpies of the reactions of monomer and dimer ions were calculated in the ORCA 4.1.1 software by the B3LYP density functional method with a set of basic functions 6-31G (d, p).

Results. The drift time and ion mobility values of N-methylimidazole were determined. A method for mathematical processing of spectra and a program for its implementation was developed. The changing peculiarities of the ion mobility spectrum during measurement at a given time were studied. According to the interpretation of the spectrum signals, the structure of the generated ions was proposed, and the enthalpies of ion formation were determined.

Conclusions. The characteristic signal of the N-methylimidazole ion protonated at the nitrogen atom of the pyridine type was revealed. It was found that two signals in the ion mobility spectra of N-methylimidazole correspond to the presence of the monomer and dimer ions. The detection limit of N-methylimidazole on the ion-drift detector Kerber was determined, amounting to 3 pg.

MATHEMATICAL METHODS AND INFORMATION SYSTEMS IN CHEMICAL TECHNOLOGY 

526-540 11
Abstract

Objectives. This study mathematically describes the mutual influence of micro- and macrostages of the process of destruction of polymer materials and determines its main parameters and limiting characteristics. In addition, a relationship is established between molecular constants characterizing the structure of a material and those characterizing its macroscopic characteristics of strength. Finally, theoretical representations of the thermokinetics of the process of thermal destruction of polymer fibers from the standpoint of the kinetic thermofluctuation concept are developed, which makes it possible to predict the thermal durability of a sample under thermal loading.

Methods. The structural–kinetic thermofluctuation theory was used to describe the initial stages of the fracture process and to derive a generalized formula for the rate of crack growth. The mathematical theory of cracks is used to describe the thermally stressed state of a material in the vicinity of an internal circular crack under mechanical and thermal loadings of the sample.

Results. A theoretical formula for the full isotherm of durability in the range of mechanical stresses from safe to critical, as well as a theoretical relationship for the time dependence of the strength of polymer fibers under purely thermal loading in the full range of heat loads from safe to critical and at the stage of nonthermal crack growth, is given. The main parameters and limiting characteristics of durability under thermal loading are also indicated.

Conclusions. A generalized structural–kinetic theory of the fracture of polymer fibers under purely thermal action on cracked specimens is presented. The developed theory combines three independent approaches: structural–kinetic (thermofluctuation theory), mechanical, and thermodynamic. The obtained theoretical relations are of practical interest for the development of methods for localization, intensification, and control of the crack growth kinetics.