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The double-blind peer-reviewed scientific and technical journal Tonkie Khimicheskie Tekhnologii [Fine Chemical Technologies] highlights the modern achievements concerning fundamental and applied research in the fine chemicals industry. It is a forum for cooperation between Russian and international scientists. Tonkie Khimicheskie Tekhnologii [Fine Chemical Technologies] publishes the results of original experimental and theoretical research in the form of original articles, brief reports, and authors' reviews, as well as forecasting and analytical articles in the field of fine chemical technologies and related sciences.

Main topics of the journal:

- Theoretical bases of chemical technologies;
- Chemistry and technology of organic substances;
- Biochemistry and biotechnology;
- Chemistry and technology of medicinal compounds and biologically active substances;
- Synthesis and processing of polymers and polymeric composites;
- Chemistry and technology of inorganic materials;
- Analytical methods in chemistry and chemical technology;
- Mathematical methods and information systems in chemical technology.

Tonkie Khimicheskie Tekhnologii [Fine Chemical Technologies] has been accepted for Scopus since September 2021.

Tonkie Khimicheskie Tekhnologii [Fine Chemical Technologies] is included in the database of Russian scientific journals, i.e., Russian Science Citation Index (RSCI), hosted on the Web of Science platform. It is reviewed in the Chemical Abstracts international database and is a part of Ulrich's Periodicals Directory as well as the Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ). The journal is included in the Science Index on the eLIBRARY platform.

The journal is included in the list of leading peer-reviewed scientific journals and editions, approved by the State Commission for Academic Degrees and Titles of the Russian Federation.

A double-blind peer review method is mandatory for processing of all scientific manuscripts submitted to the Editorial Board of Tonkie Khimicheskie Tekhnologii [Fine Chemical Technologies]. All manuscripts are accepted for publication based on the results of the peer review. Among the reviewers are leading Russian and international scientists of academic and industrial chemical and chemical-technology institutes in Russia, Germany, Portugal, Poland, Colombia, Finland, Kazakhstan, and Belarus.

Materials may be submitted either in English or in Russian. Articles submitted to the Editorial Office in English are published only in English. The Publisher provides full English translation of articles written in Russian free of charge. Russian and English versions of article are published on the journal’s website simultaneously. Articles are translated into English by qualified translators, who specialize in chemistry and chemical technology. To improve the quality of articles written in English, the Publisher cooperates with Enago, a company that provides high-quality scientific editing services by native English speakers. All articles written in English are edited by Enago experts.

Publication in Tonkie Khimicheskie Tekhnologii [Fine Chemical Technologies] is free of charge.

The journal does not have any article processing charges.

The journal does not have any article submission charges.

Publication frequency: bimonthly.

All articles published by Tonkie Khimicheskie Tekhnologii [Fine Chemical Technologies] are licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. This permits anyone to copy, redistribute, remix, transmit, and/or adapt the work, provided the original work and its accompanying source are appropriately cited.

The Founder and Publisher of the journal is MIREA - Russian Technological University (RTU MIREA). RTU MIREA is a member of the Association of Scientific Editors and Publishers (ASEP). Until 2016, the Founder and Publisher of the journal was M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University of Fine Chemical Technologies. The journal was founded in 2006. The former name of the journal was Vestnik MITHT (2006–2014) (ISSN 1819-1487).

The Publisher's address is 78, Vernadskogo pr., Moscow 119454, Russian Federation.

The journal is published in two forms: online (ISSN online 2686-7575) and print (ISSN print 2410-6395).

Tonkie Khimicheskie Tekhnologii [Fine Chemical Technologies] is an open access journal. All articles are freely available to readers immediately after online publication. In the print form, the journal is distributed on the territory of the Russian Federation and CIS by subscription. The subscription index of the Pressa Rossii United Catalog is 36924.

The registration certificate is ПИ № ФС 77-74580, issued on December 14, 2018 by the Federal Service for Supervision of Communications, Information Technology, and Mass Media of Russia.

Current issue

Vol 17, No 5 (2022)
View or download the full issue PDF (Russian) | PDF

CHEMISTRY AND TECHNOLOGY OF ORGANIC SUBSTANCES 

  • The patterns of behavior of morpholine and its trimethylsilyl derivative in reactions with trimethylsilyl isocyanate were studied.
  • The formation of mixtures of tautomeric forms of silicon-containing urea—N-(trimethylsilyl) morpholine-4-carboxamide and trimethylsilylmorpholine-4-carboximidoate—was established.
  • The composition and structure of the resulting products are determined both by the presence of a morpholine substituent at the nitrogen atom and by the type of isocyanate used. Unlike the trimethylsilyl derivative of morpholine, morpholine itself reacts with trimethylsilyl isocyanate to form a mixture of tautomeric forms.
377-383 88
Abstract

Objectives. To study the patterns of behavior of morpholine and its trimethylsilyl derivative in reactions with trimethylsilyl isocyanate.
Methods. The study employed infrared and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, as well as elemental analysis.
Results. The formation of mixtures of tautomeric forms of silicon-containing urea—N-(trimethylsilyl) morpholine-4-carboxamide and trimethylsilylmorpholine-4-carboximidoate—was established.
Conclusions. It is shown that the composition and structure of the resulting products are determined both by the presence of a morpholine substituent at the nitrogen atom and by the type of isocyanate used. Unlike the trimethylsilyl derivative of morpholine, morpholine itself reacts with trimethylsilyl isocyanate to form a mixture of tautomeric forms.

BIOCHEMISTRY AND BIOTECHNOLOGY 

  • The use of siRNA complexes leads to a decrease in viral reproduction with a multiplicity of infection of 0.001 according to real-time reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction and titration by cytopathic effect.
  • When genes whose expression products play a role in viral reproduction are blocked, the level of pro-inflammatory cytokines increases.
  • The data obtained indicate that the use of siRNA causes not only an antiviral effect, but also an immunomodulatory effect.
  • The correlation between reduced expression of cellular genes, reduced viral reproduction, and an increase in the level of pro-inflammatory cytokines was revealed.
384-393 82
Abstract

Objectives. To evaluate the dynamics of the expression level of IL-1β and IL-28β (IFN-λ3) genes as a result of complex knockdown of some cellular genes, whose expression products play an important role in the reproduction of the influenza virus.
Methods. Following the collection of virus-containing liquid and cell lysate within three days from the moment of transfection and infection, the intensity of viral reproduction was assessed using the cytopathic effect titration method. The concentration of viral ribonucleic acid (vRNA) and change in the expression of IL-1β and IL-28β (IFN-λ3) were determined by real-time reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (real-time RT-qPCR). The nonparametric Mann–Whitney test was used to statistically calculate significant differences between groups.
Results. The use of each small interfering ribonucleic acid (siRNA) complex led to a decrease in viral reproduction on the first day at the multiplicity of infection (MOI) of 0.001. The use of complex A (FLT4.2 + Nup98.1) and D (FLT4.2 + Nup98.1 + Nup205) led to a decrease in viral titer by 2.8 lgTCID50/mL and by 2.1 lgTCID50/mL relative to the use of nonspecific L2 siRNA and viral control (p ≤ 0.05). Transfection of complexes B (Nup98.1 + Nup205) and C (FLT4.2 + Nup205) also reduced the viral titer by 1.5 lgTCID50/mL and 1.8 lgTCID50/mL relative to nonspecific L2 siRNA and viral control (p ≤ 0.05). When conducting real-time RT-qPCR, a significant decrease in the concentration of viral RNA was also noted. When using complexes B, C, and D, the concentration of vRNA decreased on the first day by 14.5, 4.1, and 15 times, respectively. On the second day, a decrease in vRNA was observed in cells with B and D complexes by 17.1 and 18.3 times (p ≤ 0.05). Along with a decrease in the viral titer and vRNA, an increase in the expression of the IL-1β and IL-28β genes was observed on the first day when using all siRNA complexes relative to nonspecific and viral controls (p ≤ 0.05). On the second day, an increase was also observed in cells with A and D complexes, while on the third day, there was an increase in the expression of these genes in cells with complex D (p ≤ 0.05).
Conclusions. The use of siRNA complexes is shown to have a pronounced antiviral effect while simultaneously suppressing the activity of cellular genes (FLT4, Nup98 and Nup205). In parallel, the transfection of complexes that block the formation of expression products necessary for viral reproduction is demonstrated to lead to an increase in the level of expression of the IL-1β and IL-28β genes. These results indicate not only that the use of siRNA has antiviral activity, but also immunomodulatory activity, which can contribute to a more effective immune response of the body.

  • Effect of selenium compounds on induction of peroxidase activity in maize tissues is analyzed.
  • Diacetophenonyl selenide reaction with thiol groups of maize tissues is accompanied by electrolytes leakage and albumin and total protein concentration increase.
  • Increase in protein concentration in plant tissues results in activation of peroxidase enzyme.
394-409 144
Abstract

Objectives. While organic and inorganic derivatives of selenium like thiol poisons are known to activate enzymes in cells of different organisms, the mechanism of enzyme activity induction is poorly studied. Therefore, the aim of the study was to investigate the effect of selenium compounds on peroxidase activity induction in maize tissues.
Methods. Mechanism of sulfhydryl groups blocking in selenium derivatives was studied on maize in comparison with fungicide tolylfluanid—a typical thiol poison. Electrolytes leakage was determined using conductometry and capillary electrophoresis, protein fractions—by the Ermakov–Durinina method, protein concentration—according to Bradford protein essay, and peroxidase activity—by the Boyarkin method.
Results. Diacetophenolylselenide (DAPS-25) was shown to react with SH-groups similarly with tolylfluanid fungicide. DAPS-25 increased K+ and leakage by 58 and 14 times, while appropriate increases for tolylfluanid were 4.4 and 1.5 times as compared to control. Increased total protein content—especially albumins—was due to electrolyte leakage from maize cells. DAPS-25 increased albumins concentration by 2.4–4.5 times, and tolylfluanid application by 2 times. Similar increase of peroxidase activity in maize roots and sprouts as a result of DAPS-25 (by 63% and 112%) and tolylfluanid (by 73% and 63%) application indicates close mechanism of their effect. Under DAPS-25 loading L-cysteine decreases peroxidase activity, which records the removal of SH-groups blockage. A less intensive effect was registered for sodium selenite and L-selenocystin, also capable of reacting with SH-groups. L-cysteine supplementation to DAPS-25 solution decreases selenium concentration in maize, indicating the decrease of selenium bioavailability.
Conclusions. The results indicated that selenium containing compounds react with SH-groups of maize cells increasing electrolytes leakage, protein content and especially albumins resulting in the increase of peroxidase activity.

SYNTHESIS AND PROCESSING OF POLYMERS AND POLYMERIC COMPOSITES 

  • Spatially separated oligoestermethacrylates based on phosphorus trichloride containing aliphatic or aromatic spacers in the structure were synthesized.
  • During the interaction of glycidyl methacrylate with phosphorus trichloride in the mass of the latter, reaction products were shown to be formed both according to the Krasusky rule from the side of the α-carbon atom, as well as against this rule with the formation of isomeric products.
  • Obtaining these compounds in bulk is possible only in the presence of a homopolymerization inhibitor.
  • The influence of the spacer structure on the curing rate of oligoestermethacrylates under the action of UV radiation has been established.
  • It has been shown that the introduction of a spacer into the oligomer structure is accompanied by an increase in the induction period by a factor of 39 compared to a sample without a spacer.
410-426 65
Abstract

Objectives. To synthesize phosphorus-containing oligoestermethacrylates spatially separated by spacers of aliphatic or aromatic structure and evaluate their effect on photocuring kinetics.
Methods. For determining the qualitative and quantitative composition of the synthesized compounds, the following methods were used: thin layer chromatography; chromatographic and mass spectrometry; infrared spectroscopy; 1H, 13C, 31P nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy; differential scanning calorimetry. The dielectric loss tangent was determined on a specially designed optical cell with an ultraviolet (UV) light source to an immittance meter. Elemental analysis was performed on an energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometer.
Results. Spatially separated oligoestermethacrylates based on phosphorus trichloride containing aliphatic or aromatic spacers in the structure were synthesized. During the interaction of glycidyl methacrylate with phosphorus trichloride in the mass of the latter, reaction products were shown to be formed both according to the Krasusky rule from the side of the α-carbon atom, as well as against this rule with the formation of isomeric products. Obtaining these compounds in bulk is possible only in the presence of a homopolymerization inhibitor. The influence of the spacer structure on the curing rate of oligoestermethacrylates under the action of UV radiation has been established. It has been shown that the introduction of a spacer into the oligomer structure is accompanied by an increase in the induction period by a factor of 39 compared to a sample without a spacer.
Conclusions. The results obtained indicate the possibility of obtaining new oligoestermethacrylates with aliphatic and aromatic spacers in the structure. The influence of the structure of the spacer on the kinetics of photocuring is determined.

CHEMISTRY AND TECHNOLOGY OF INORGANIC MATERIALS 

  • The interaction of the anion [B10H9O(CH2)4O] with secondary amines was studied.
  • A series of nitrogen-containing derivatives of the anion [B10H10]2− was synthesized.
  • A method for obtaining closo-decaborates with pendant ammonium groups was developed.
427-438 74
Abstract

Objectives. One of the most promising methods of treating malignant tumors is 10B-neutron capture therapy. While compounds based on cluster boron anions [BnHn]2− (n = 10, 12) are often used as boron-containing agents due to the very high specific concentration of boron atoms per particle, the use of such compounds is associated with the need to develop new methods for the functionalization of boron clusters associated with the production of boron-containing derivatives containing biologically active functional groups. One of the most convenient methods of modification of [BnHn]2− (n = 10, 12) anions is the interaction of their derivatives containing cyclic oxonium-type substituents with negatively charged or neutral nucleophilic reagents. The disclosure of substituents of this type leads to the formation of closo-borates with functional groups separated from the cluster by an alkoxyl spacer chain. The purpose of this study is to develop methods for the synthesis of derivatives of the closo-decaborate anion [B10H10]2− with pendant nitrogen-containing groups.
Methods. The general control of the reactions of the disclosure of cyclic substituents was carried out on the basis of 11B nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy data. The structure of the obtained derivatives, including the nature of the attached functional groups, was determined using 1H, 13C attached proton test (APT) NMR and infrared (IR) spectroscopy data. The molecular weight of the synthesized compounds was confirmed by electrospray ionization mass-spectrometry (ESI–MS).
Results. The interaction of the anion [2-B10H9O(CH2)4O]− with secondary amines (dimethylamine, dipropylamine, diallylamine, dibutylamine, diisobutylamine, morpholine, di-sec-butylamine) in an ethanol environment is investigated. As a result of the reactions, a cyclic substituent is shown to expand with the addition of a nucleophilic reagent. Seven new derivatives of the closodecaborate anion with pendant nitrogen-containing groups have been synthesized.
Conclusions. A developed method for obtaining closo-decaborates with ammonium groups separated from the boron cluster by an alkoxyl spacer group is presented. It is shown that the use of amines of various structures does not fundamentally affect the course of the reactions, allowing the composition and structure of the target derivatives to be effectively regulated. The resulting compounds can be involved in further modification reactions due to a reactive pendant group, as well as being suitable for use as effective polydentate ligands. Closo-decaborates with pendant nitrogen-containing groups and their derivatives are of considerable interest in the synthesis of compounds for use in 10B-neutron capture therapy of malignant tumors.

  • The high-entropy ceramic material (MnFeCoNiCu)3O4 synthesized by low-temperature self-propagating synthesis has two phases with the spinel and rock salt structures and it is expected that the material has pronounced magnetic properties.
  • When obtaining the (MnFeCoNiCu)3O4 high-entropy ceramics the main task is to preserve the high-entropy structure and the initial phase composition.
  • The cold sintering process of the (MnFeCoNiCu)3O4 high-entropy ceramics at 300°C, 30 min dwell time, and 315 MPa pressure using an aqueous medium with additives of 0.1 wt % CH3COONH4 and NaOH does not lead to a change in the phase composition of the initial powder, which indicates the preservation of a highly entropic structure.
439-449 115
Abstract

Objectives. To obtain experimental data on the effect of activating additive type on the cold sintering process of (MnFeCoNiCu)3O4 high-entropy ceramic. The following substances were used as activating additives: ammonium acetate (CH3COONH4), acetic acid (CH3COOH), ammonium chloride (NH4Cl), potassium fluoride dihydrate (КF·2H2O), lithium fluoride (LiF), sodium fluoride (NaF), and sodium hydroxide (NaOH).
Methods. Synthesis of the initial powder by low-temperature self-propagating method; investigation of the powder particles size distribution by laser diffraction method; analysis of the particle shape and compacted sample microstructure by scanning electron microscopy; investigation of the phase composition by X-ray phase analysis; high-entropy ceramic sample consolidation by cold sintering process. The density of the initial powder and the relative density of cold sintered samples were determined by the Archimedes method.
Results. Samples with a relative density of over 0.70 were obtained using distilled water, CH3COONH4 and NaOH during cold sintering at 300 °C, with a holding time of 30 min and pressure 315 MPa.
Conclusions. For the first time, the effect of the type of activating additive on the relative density of high-entropy ceramics (MnFeCoNiCu)3O4 samples obtained by cold sintering process has been experimentally demonstrated. The samples microstructures have pronounced differences: 20 wt % distilled water does not lead to grain growth, with only their compaction to 0.71 relative density observed; however, the addition of 0.1 wt % CH3COONH4 and NaOH increases the average grain size when reaching similar relative densities (0.70 and 0.71, respectively). X-ray diffraction analysis showed that the cold sintering process does not lead to a change in the phase composition of the initial (MnFeCoNiCu)3O4 powder, confirming the preservation of the high-entropy structure.

ERRATUM