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The double-blind peer-reviewed scientific and technical journal Tonkie Khimicheskie Tekhnologii [Fine Chemical Technologies] highlights the modern achievements concerning fundamental and applied research in the fine chemicals industry. It is a forum for cooperation between Russian and international scientists. Tonkie Khimicheskie Tekhnologii [Fine Chemical Technologies] publishes the results of original experimental and theoretical research in the form of original articles, brief reports, and authors' reviews, as well as forecasting and analytical articles in the field of fine chemical technologies and related sciences.

Main topics of the journal:

- Theoretical bases of chemical technologies;
- Chemistry and technology of organic substances;
- Chemistry and technology of medicinal compounds and biologically active substances;
- Synthesis and processing of polymers and polymeric composites;
- Chemistry and technology of inorganic materials;
- Analytical methods in chemistry and chemical technology;
- Mathematical methods and information systems in chemical technology.

Tonkie Khimicheskie Tekhnologii [Fine Chemical Technologies] has been accepted for Scopus since September 2021.

Tonkie Khimicheskie Tekhnologii [Fine Chemical Technologies] is included in the database of Russian scientific journals, i.e., Russian Science Citation Index (RSCI), hosted on the Web of Science platform. It is reviewed in the Chemical Abstracts international database and is a part of Ulrich's Periodicals Directory as well as the Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ). The journal is included in the Science Index on the eLIBRARY platform.

The journal is included in the list of leading peer-reviewed scientific journals and editions, approved by the State Commission for Academic Degrees and Titles of the Russian Federation.

A double-blind peer review method is mandatory for processing of all scientific manuscripts submitted to the Editorial Board of Tonkie Khimicheskie Tekhnologii [Fine Chemical Technologies]. All manuscripts are accepted for publication based on the results of the peer review. Among the reviewers are leading Russian and international scientists of academic and industrial chemical and chemical-technology institutes in Russia, Germany, Portugal, Poland, Colombia, Finland, Kazakhstan, and Belarus.

Materials may be submitted either in English or in Russian. Articles submitted to the Editorial Office in English are published only in English. The Publisher provides full English translation of articles written in Russian free of charge. Russian and English versions of article are published on the journal’s website simultaneously. Articles are translated into English by qualified translators, who specialize in chemistry and chemical technology. To improve the quality of articles written in English, the Publisher cooperates with Enago, a company that provides high-quality scientific editing services by native English speakers. All articles written in English are edited by Enago experts.

Publication in Tonkie Khimicheskie Tekhnologii [Fine Chemical Technologies] is free of charge.

The journal does not have any article processing charges.

The journal does not have any article submission charges.

Publication frequency: bimonthly.

All articles published by Tonkie Khimicheskie Tekhnologii [Fine Chemical Technologies] are licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. This permits anyone to copy, redistribute, remix, transmit, and/or adapt the work, provided the original work and its accompanying source are appropriately cited.

The Founder and Publisher of the journal is MIREA - Russian Technological University (RTU MIREA). RTU MIREA is a member of the Association of Scientific Editors and Publishers (ASEP). Until 2016, the Founder and Publisher of the journal was M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University of Fine Chemical Technologies. The journal was founded in 2006. The former name of the journal was Vestnik MITHT (2006–2014) (ISSN 1819-1487).

The Publisher's address is 78, Vernadskogo pr., Moscow 119454, Russian Federation.

The journal is published in two forms: online (ISSN online 2686-7575) and print (ISSN print 2410-6395).

Tonkie Khimicheskie Tekhnologii [Fine Chemical Technologies] is an open access journal. All articles are freely available to readers immediately after online publication. In the print form, the journal is distributed on the territory of the Russian Federation and CIS by subscription. The subscription index of the Pressa Rossii United Catalog is 36924.

The registration certificate is ПИ № ФС 77-74580, issued on December 14, 2018 by the Federal Service for Supervision of Communications, Information Technology, and Mass Media of Russia.

Current issue

Vol 16, No 5 (2021)
View or download the full issue PDF (Russian)

THEORETICAL BASES OF CHEMICAL TECHNOLOGY 

379-389 14
Abstract

Objectives. The formalized problem of the optimal design of distillation column systems belongs to the class of mixed integer nonlinear program problems. Discrete search variables are the number of trays in the rectifying and stripping sections of columns, whereas the continuous ones are the operating modes of columns. This study aimed to develop an algorithm and a software package for the optimal technological design of a system of simple distillation columns based on the criterion of total reduced capital and energy costs using rigorous mathematical distillation models.
Methods. The solution to this problem is based on the branch and bound method. A computer model of the distillation column system was developed in the environment of the Aspen Hysys software package. The Inside–Out module was used as the distillation model. The developed algorithm is implemented in the software environment of the Matlab mathematical package. To solve the conditional optimization problem, a sequential quadratic programming method-based model was used. The interaction between software add-ins in Matlab and Aspen Hysys is implemented using a Component Object Model interface.
Results. Approaches to obtain the lower and upper bounds of the optimality criterion and the branching method for the implementation of the branch and bound method have been developed. In addition, an algorithm for the optimal design of a distillation column of a given topology based on the branch and bound method has been developed. Furthermore, using Matlab, a software package that implements the developed algorithm and is integrated with the universal modeling software AspenHysys has been created.
Conclusions. An algorithm and a software package have been developed and implemented that allows automating the design process of distillation column systems and integration with advanced mathematical programming packages, respectively. The performance of the algorithm and software package has been evaluated using the optimal design of the debutanization column as an example.

CHEMISTRY AND TECHNOLOGY OF ORGANIC SUBSTANCES 

390-398 14
Abstract

Objectives. Recently, there has been a tendency to increase the volume of high-viscosity heavy oils in the total volume of oil produced. The processing of these oils requires new technological approaches. This task is closely related to the need to increase the depth of oil refining. Among the approaches proposed to solve these problems, mechanochemical activation, which is based on the cavitation effect produced by ultrasonic or hydrodynamic methods, has been suggested. This study evaluated the effects of cavitation in increasing the depth of oil refining.
Methods. Straight-run and “secondary” oil products were used as raw materials: vacuum gas oil, catalytic cracking gas oil, and fuel oil. Activation was carried out in a high-pressure disintegrator. The principle of operation was to compress the oil product and then pass it through a diffuser. When the oil was passed through the diffuser, there was a sharp pressure release to atmospheric pressure, which caused cavitation in the hydrodynamic flow. The pressure gradient on the diffuser and the number of processing cycles ranged from 20 to 50 MPa and 1 to 10, respectively. The density, refractive index, and the fractional composition of petroleum products were determined using standard and generally accepted methods.
Results. This paper reports the influence of mechanochemical activation of petroleum products on their physical and chemical characteristics. An increase in the pressure gradient and the number of processing cycles leads to a decrease in the boiling point of the petroleum products and their density and an increase in the yield of fractions that boil off below 400 °C. The yield of the fractions with boiling points of 400–480 °C and the remainder were reduced. The density and refractive index of fractions with boiling points up to 480 °C decreased, and the density of the residue increased. The effects of cavitation (an increase in the yield of fractions with boiling points up to 400 °C and a decrease in the density of the petroleum products) increased with increasing pressure gradient and the number of processing cycles.
Conclusions. The changes in the density, boiling point, and the yield of fractions increased with increasing the pressure from 20 to 50 MPa and the number of hydrodynamic cavitation cycles from 1 to 5. Increasing the number of processing cycles to more than five had little additional effect. The effects of cavitation increased with increasing initial density of the oil product. The average molecular weight of these fractions was estimated from the densities and boiling points of individual fractions of the petroleum products. The calculation confirmed the assumption regarding the course of cracking reactions of petroleum products under the influence of cavitation and indicates the course of the compaction processes.

CHEMISTRY AND TECHNOLOGY OF MEDICINAL COMPOUNDS AND BIOLOGICALLY ACTIVE SUBSTANCES 

399-413 16
Abstract

Objectives. Synthesis and study of the properties of copolymers of vinyl benzyl alcohol (VBA) with styrene with antimicrobial properties.
Methods. The study employed infrared (IR) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, thin-layer chromatography, viscometry, and elemental analysis. The sessile drop method and the pencil method were respectively utilized to determine the contact angles and hardness of the films. The process of testing the film coatings’ resistance to the effects of molds consisted of contaminating the film coatings applied to the glass with mold spores of the All-Russian Collection of Microorganisms in a solution of mineral salts without sugar (Czapek–Dox medium).
Results. Homopolymers of vinyl benzyl acetate and its copolymers with styrene were synthesized in this study. Homo- and copolymers of VBA were obtained by saponification. IR and proton NMR (1H NMR) spectroscopy determined the composition of the copolymers. Employing IR spectroscopy, the degree of saponification was monitored by the appearance of the hydroxyl group absorption band and the disappearance of the ester group absorption band. According to the IR spectroscopy data, only an insignificant (~3%) amount of ester groups remains in the saponified copolymers. The influence of the copolymers’ composition on their solubility in various solvents is demonstrated. IR spectroscopy of the copolymers revealed hydrogen-bond formation between the unreacted ester groups and hydroxyl groups formed due to the saponification. The viscometry of the solutions of mixtures of saponified and unsaponified copolymers, solutions of mixtures of saponified copolymer with polyvinyl acetate, and viscometry of saponified copolymers in various solvents all support this conclusion. These bonds’ concentration depends on the copolymer’s composition and can be controlled by the nature of the solvent from which these copolymers’ films are formed. Saponified copolymer solutions form smooth, transparent film coatings with excellent adhesion to metals and silicate glass surfaces. The contact angle of these films, like the hardness, decreases as the VBA units’ concentration in the copolymers increases and depends on the solvent polarity used to form the films. It has been demonstrated that increasing the VBA units concentration suppresses the microorganisms’ growth.
Conclusions. Film coatings made of copolymers of styrene with VBA have been shown to have high biocidal activity against molds; can be used to protect structural materials and products from the effects of microorganisms.

414-425 14
Abstract

Objectives. This paper presents data on the development and study of the structural properties of iron-doped crystalline silicon (nc-Si/SiOx/Fe) nanoparticles obtained using the plasma-chemical method for application in magnetic resonance imaging diagnostics and treatment of oncological diseases. This work aimed to use a variety of analytical methods to study the structural properties of nc-Si/SiOx/Fe and their colloidal stabilization with citrate anions for in vivo applications.
Methods. Silicon nanoparticles obtained via the plasma-chemical synthesis method were characterized by laser spark emission spectroscopy, atomic emission spectroscopy, Fouriertransform infrared spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The hydrodynamic diameter of the nanoparticles was estimated using dynamic light scattering. The toxicity of the nanoparticles was investigated using a colorimetric MTT test for the cell metabolic activity. Elemental iron with different Fe/Si atomic ratios was added to the feedstock during loading.
Results. The particles were shown to have a large silicon core covered by a relatively thin layer of intermediate oxides (interface) and an amorphous oxide shell, which is silicon oxide with different oxidation states SiOx (0 ≤ x ≤ 2). The samples had an iron content of 0.8–1.8 at %. Colloidal solutions of the nanoparticles stabilized by citrate anions were obtained and characterized. According to the analysis of the cytotoxicity of the modified nanosilicon particles using monoclonal K562 human erythroleukemia cells, no toxicity was found for cells in culture at particle concentrations of up to 5 µg/mL.
Conclusions. Since the obtained modified particles are nontoxic, they can be used in in vivo theranostic applications.

CHEMISTRY AND TECHNOLOGY OF INORGANIC MATERIALS 

426-437 33
Abstract

Objectives. Pentafluorodistannates of alkali metals are promising materials for use as electrolytes in fluoride-ion batteries due to their electrophysical properties, such as high fluoride-ion conductivity. This work aims to synthesize crystals of alkali metals MeSn2F5 (Me = Na, K, Rb, Cs), carry out X-ray diffraction studies on them, and investigate the possibility of obtaining lithium fluorostannates.

Methods. Supersaturated aqueous solutions were employed to synthesize the crystals. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis was carried out.

Results. Oversaturated solutions yield microcrystalline powders of sodium, potassium, rubidium, and cesium pentafluorodistannates. The presence of a single-phase was confirmed by XRD analysis of the powders corresponding to the MеSn2F5 (Mе = Na, K, Rb, Cs) composition. XRD data analysis and literature indicated that MеSn2F5 (Mе = K, Rb, Cs) have a fluorite-like structure, with the cations forming three-layer closest packing. The RbSn2F5 compound was discovered to be isostructural to KSn2F5. Based on this discovery, RbSn2F5 was reindexed to a hexagonal unit cell with parameters a = 7.40(3) Å, с = 10.12(6) Å (KSn2F5 P3, a = 7.29(3) Å, с = 9.86(2) Å). The CsSn2F5 compound was reindexed to a monoclinic unit cell (a = 10.03(4) Å, b = 5.92(7) Å, c = 11.96(9) Å, β = 107.4(5)°). A crystallochemical analysis of the pentafluorodistannates was carried out, and common structural motifs were discovered. The motifs are similar to lead tetrafluorostannate PbSnF4, the best fluoride-ion conductor. The effect of the pentafluorodistannates structures on the ionic conductivity is considered. The LiF–SnF2 system contains no compounds; the compositions were obtained by melting the original fluorides.

Conclusions. MеSn2F5 (Mе = Na, K, Rb, Cs) were synthesized and investigated by XRD analysis. The structural characteristics of the RbSn2F5 and CsSn2F5 compounds have been redefined. The crystallochemical structure is analyzed in relation to the electrophysical properties of the alkali metal pentafluorodistannates. Pentafluorodistannates MеSn2F5 (Mе = K, Rb, Cs) have a fluorite-like structural motif with cubic parameters а = 5.694 Å (KSn2F5), а = 5.846 Å (RbSn2F5), а = 6.100 Å (CsSn2F5), with the cations forming three-layer closest packing. The cationic layers alternate like Me–Sn–Sn–Me (Mе = K, Rb, Cs). For KSn2F5 and RbSn2F5, they are normal to the three-fold axis and normal to the four-fold axis in the case of CsSn2F5.

438-447 14
Abstract

Objectives. To identify the regularities of electrochemical processing of the heat-resistant GS32-VI alloy in a sulfuric acid electrolyte with a concentration of 100 g/dm3 under the action of a pulsed current in a pulsed mode.
Methods. Using the electrochemical technological complex EHK-1012 (developed by IP Tetran) and a non-compensatory method of measuring potential, polarization and depolarization curves with a change in pulse duration and a pause between them were recorded. The current pulses had an amplitude ranging from 0 to 3.5 A (when recording the polarization and depolarization curves), pulse durations ranging from 200 to 1200 ms, and a pause (delay) between pulses ranging from 50 to 500 ms. There were no reverse current pulses.
Results. The parameters of the current program that provide the maximum values of the alloy dissolution rate and current output were determined: with a current pulse amplitude of 2 A, a current pulse duration of 500 ms, and a pause duration between pulses of 250 ms, the maximum dissolution rate of the alloy is 0.048 g/h·cm2, while the current output for nickel is 61.6% with an anode area of 10 cm2. The basic technological scheme for processing the heat-resistant GS32-VI alloy, which includes anodic alloy dissolution in a pulsed mode, is proposed.
Conclusions. Electrochemical dissolution of GS32-VI alloy under pulsed current action results in an optimal dissolution rate ratio of the alloy components, ensuring the production of a cathode precipitate with a total nickel and cobalt content of 97.5%.

ERRATUM 

448-449 8
Abstract

 Gennady J. Kabo, Lubov A. Kabo, Larisa S. Karpushenkava, Andrey V. Blokhin 

 The original article can be found under https://doi.org/10.32362/2410-6593-2021-16-4-273-286