Fine Chemical Technologies

Advanced search
Vol 8, No 2 (2013)
View or download the full issue PDF (Russian)


3-17 149
The existence of solitary plasma objects in a bounded region is established by the methods of non-local physics. The unified generalized non-local theory is applied for mathematical modeling of quantum solitons. Ball lightings are quantum solitons – plasmoids which reach stability as a result of equalizing of corresponding quantum pressures of the non-local origin and the solitary electric forces. The delivered theory demonstrates the great possibilities of the generalized quantum hydrodynamics in the investigation of quantum solitons. The theory leads to solitons as typical formations in the generalized quantum hydrodynamics. The explanation of Gagarin catastrophe is explained as the result of the interaction of MIG 15 UTI with a plasmoid.
18-25 169
The extractive distillation of methyl acetate – chloroform mixture was studied with the application of three extracting agents (dimethyl formamide, ethylene glycol and dimethyl sulfoxide) in the two-column flowsheet and in the complex with the partially coupled heat and material flows (PCHMF). Optimization of the researched flowsheets was carried out according to the criterion of the boilers minimum energy consumption. It was established that the energy consumption by the separation in the complex with PCHMF decreases as compared to two-column flowsheets up to 32.1%, for the extractive distillation with dimethyl formamide, up to 11.7% with the ethylene glycol and up to 1% with dimethyl sulfoxide. It was found that energy efficiency of extractive distillation complexes with PCHMF for methyl acetate – chloroform mixture separation depends on the reflux ratio in the regeneration column of the traditional two-column flowsheet (relative volatility of chloroform – extracting agent).
26-33 248
. Both the experimental LLE and VLE data were compared with the correlated values obtained by means of the NRTL equation. Satisfactory agreement between the calculated values and experimental data was achieved
34-38 153
Different criteria for the quantification of the quality of binary mixtures separation by rectification were compared. The best criterion for the binary mixtures was selected. The unit energy costs in the case of rectification of binary mixtures with different separabilities and the compositions of the initial mixture were found. It is shown that due to the internal energy saving in the processes of rectification the average separability of mixtures (40 to 60%) the unit cost of heat in the reboiler is close to the latent heat of vaporization of the mixtures. In this case the purity of shared components is 98%.
39-44 167
The possible transformations of composition – property dependencies of binary homogeneous mixtures are considered. Transformations of the first multiplicity leading to the emergence of internal singular points are followed by changes in the types of points: the topological minimum becomes topological maximum (and vice versa). Transformations of the second multiplicity are related to the existence of internal complex singular points, which are the inflection points of composition – property dependencies of binary mixtures.
45-51 140
The problem of constructing the boundary lines of distillation are solved using the method of constructing the separatrix line.


52-57 198
In comparison with other types of matter, plants have a small content of fatty acids (FA). They perform energetic, structural and protective functions. Lipids actively change metabolism in the autumn time and increase the resistance of plants to low temperatures. For this reason the study of plant lipids is important to determine the chemical composition of lipids and understand of their role in the metabolism of plants. Analysis of the lipid composition of plant is connected with some complications. Plants can contain fatty acids not only in the free form, but also in the form of their esters. This can lead to errors in the quantitative determination of FA in plant samples. In addition, the presence of a significant variety of chemical compounds in plants complicates the analysis. The article describes the results of a study on fatty acids and their esters in cowberries and cranberries by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. It is shown that during the fractionating of berry extracts, fatty acids are in the chloroform extract of the acids, and their esters are in the hexane fraction. Thus, we can obtain the chromatogram of extracts with a clear picture of the peaks of identified compounds (Rs > 1.5). The linear dependence remains in the range of identified compounds 0.01–300 mg/mL. Evaluation of the metrological characteristics of the analysis techniques was performed with a pattern mixture of methyl esters of fatty acids as an example.
58-63 188
Administration of drug delivery systems allows reaching therapeutic efficiency in comparison with traditional dosage forms. Microspheres are used quite often as drug delivery systems in pharmaceutical technology. There are a polymeric carrier and a drug substance in microspheres. Incorporation of a drug substance in a polymeric matrix (carrier) extends the drug release duration by half a year. There are several methods for obtaining microspheres. Depending on the physical and chemical properties drug substances incorporate either by the double emulsification methods or by the single emulsification methods. Naltrexone hydrochloride is a water-soluble drug substance. It has antagonistic activity with respect to opioid receptors. Naltrexone incorporates into microspheres in the form of a water/oil/water type emulsion. In this work the factors that influence the size of microspheres and incorporation efficiency of Naltrexone were studied: the concentration of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) copolymer (PLGA); the type of the stabilizer and its concentration; the volume of an external and internal phase; the type and speed of mechanical influence on a secondary emulsion. The method of double emulsification for drug delivery systems with modified release showed low efficiency: the efficiency of Naltrexone incorporation into microspheres didn't exceed 25%.


64-68 221
The synthesis and data of a study on new complexes of samarium chloride and bromide with acetamide, [Sm(AA)4(H2O)4]Cl3 (I) and [Sm(AA)4(H2O)4]Br3 (II), by IR spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis are presented. It was found that coordination of four molecules of acetamide and four molecules of water in the internal sphere occurs through the oxygen atoms. The coordination polyhedra are complex, between tetragonal antiprism and dodecahedron. These compounds contain one molecule of water. The chloride and bromide ions are not coordinated and exist in the external sphere.
69-73 169
The paper considers vanadium (V) distribution during its extraction from hydrochloric acid solutions by phosphorus-containing extracting agents. It has been shown that vanadium can be concentrated in one of the phases during the extraction processing of filtrates after titanomagnetite decomposition with HCl solutions.
74-78 159
Interaction of К2 [OsX6], where X=Cl, Br ( СOs = n · 10-4 – n · 10-2 mol/l) with DMSO has been studied by electronic absorption spectroscopy at room temperature and heating. It was established that interaction was accompanied by replacement of halide-ions in [OsX6]2- with DMSO molecules and reduction of osmium(IV) to osmium(III), and then to osmium(II). The intermediate forms were defined: [OsIV(dmso-O)Br5] and [OsIII(dmso-S)2Br4]. The final product of the interaction in solution in case of heating was cis,fac-[OsII(dmso-S)3(dmso-O)X2], which slowly isomerizes to trans-[OsII(dmso-S)4 Х2 ] at room temperature .
79-85 191
The paper describes a study on the formation of CuO/ZnO/Al2O3 at synthesis and calcination. The effect of crystallinity of copper and zinc oxides depending on the thermolysis temperature is shown. Data on activity and stability in the reactions of CO conversion and water-methanol fraction purification from of CH3OH are given. It is assumed that the precursor of the active state (in addition to the bulk phase fine CuO) is caused by the presence of isolated Cu2+ cations and clusters of copper (CuO)x in various oxide compounds. The obtained results are used in the development of catalysts for the purification of water-methanol mixture from CH3OH and steam conversion of CO.
86-89 191
will be added. One can explain the nature of the term by examining the relativistic case. Below the formulas for the radial and angular parts of the wave function were evaluated. The term for the energetic levels of the hydrogen atom for specific quantum numbers was given. We calculated the values of several specific radial functions for different quantum numbers, as well as the values of the radial function at the origin of coordinates and wide apart. A number of mean values for different powers of r was calculated. For the continuous spectrum the radial eigenfunctions were calculated.
90-94 158
While researching the thermal reaction of viscoelastic bodies under heatstroke conditions, the quasi-static HiltonLee-Sternberg theory of viscoelastic analogy generalization to dynamic models given inertial effects in the equations of motion was considered. The thermal reaction to heatstroke of a massive body (area with internal spherical cavity) with a sudden increase of its surface from initial To to Tc > 0 was researched. Numerical experiments were done, which revealed the qualitative difference of modeling results for the elastic body and viscoelastic body from rheological Maxwell and Kelvin models. It was found that the sudden heat of the surface of the viscoelastic body due to inertia force results in short-time stress close enough to the stress of the elastic, medium. Moreover, the difference of these stresses is decreased with increasing viscosity. The addition to this duration of action of inertial effects is about microseconds. During this time stress reaches its thermoelastic value before the growth of significant viscous flow. The qualitative behavior difference of viscoelastic Maxwell and Kelvin mediums on the body surface under conditions of sudden cooling within the quasi-static model of thermoviscoelasticity was described. The beginning of viscous flow in Maxwell medium which results in continuous stress decrease after discontinuous change tending to elastic medium stress was shown. On the contrary, in Kelvin medium jump of stress exceeds the value for the elastic medium, to which these stresses are tending.
95-100 192
The paper is concerned with an important stage of the technology development of the third generation photosensitizer for photodynamic therapy of cancer with 800 nm absorption band. An important requirement of a process chain of obtaining of bacteriochlorin p N-ethoxycycloimide O-ethyloxime methyl ester is organization of reliable and efficient quality control of the original Rhodobacter capsulate biomass, its moisture content, concentration of the isolated bacteriochlorophyll a and conversion of the latter into bacteriopurpurin and its chemical modification into the target product along with the control of the intermediate products at every stage of the manufacturing process. When organizing the production, duration of the tests at each step of the process, accuracy and reliability of the quality monitoring should be the determining criteria. On the basis of functional modeling methodology there was created a complex of models in IDEF0 notation, describing production technology and quality control procedure of bacteriochlorin p N-ethoxycycloimide O-ethyloxime.
101-102 142
The Laplace operator in a revolved coordinate system (the “revolved” Laplace operator) is introduced in numerical mesh method along diagonal lines. In this paper an attempt is made to use it for numerical solution of the two-dimensional Poisson equation. Advantages and disadvantages of this approach and difficulties in its realization are discussed.
103-107 150
Veral definitions of modernization "in general" were considered in order to develop an understanding of modernization at the level of a particular company (micro level). Modernization is a process of transforming a company into more modern condition characterized by the use of advanced technologies and the application of good practices of labor and production, leading to increased competitiveness. Today companies are under the influence of an ever-changing environment and increasing competitive pressures. This leads to the necessity of determining the long-term prospects, or "strategic management", and to ensure competitive advantages in the future. Companies should consider modernization as a strategy of development. The situation in Russia in the last decade requires the action of the modernization of economy by modernizing its structural units – companies, according to the statements of the top officials of the country, paying attention to the complexity of the modernization and the need to involve all sectors of the economy in the process. Additionally, because the technological backwardness leads to increased negative impacts on the environment, modernization should be considered in the context of sustainable development.
108-112 153
The article reveals the contents of ecological-economic information, which is necessary for economic growth in the field of nature management when preserving ecological sustainability of biosphere. The article demonstrates the fact that violation of the bio-geo-chemical unity of the biosphere results in ecological diseases. Besides, economic efficiency of production slows down due to the increase of ecological-economic costs. As a solution of the problem the author`s position for including standards of cosmic ecology into ecological-economic information is proposed.

ISSN 2410-6593 (Print)
ISSN 2686-7575 (Online)