Fine Chemical Technologies

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Vol 16, No 3 (2021)
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199-212 17

Objectives. This paper presents research results on the encapsulation of a fluidized bed of liquid and solid toxic waste containing chemicals with a hazard class of 1–3.
Methods. Soils contaminated with hexachlorobenzene and hexachlorocyclohexane were used as the seed material. Ceresin was selected as the encapsulant, which was sprayed onto the fluidized bed through a pneumatic nozzle at a temperature of 135°C. Before the spraying of the ceresin, binders were introduced into the fluidized bed of the seed material through pneumatic nozzles in the form of a melt of high-temperature coal-tar pitch and wastewater containing sodium and arsenic salts as well as heavy metal oxides. The experiments were carried out using a modified GLATT AGT-150 laboratory unit.
Results. The results demonstrate that the mechanism for granule formation is a mixed mechanism. The binding of the seed material is carried out by both the pitch and salting out. In this case, the cavities in the agglomerates are partially filled with salt deposits, which increases the strength and integrity of the final product’s structure. Ranges for the process parameter values were established at the point at which there was no unwanted agglomeration in the fluidized bed, and dust formation did not exceed 5%. When the ratio of the bed mass to the mass of ceresin is equal to unity, a moisture-resistant free-flowing product of hazard class 5 is obtained, which is suitable for transportation and long-term storage. The average diameters of the initial particles and encapsulated granules were 0.5 and 1.5 mm, respectively.
Conclusions. The present study demonstrates a potential process for the granulation– encapsulation of toxic waste and hazardous substances with a hazard class of 1–3 in a single fluid-bed apparatus, resulting in the formation of a moisture-resistant hazard class-5 granular product suitable for transportation and long-term storage. The results obtained can be used in the development of an industrial large-scale process for encapsulating waste of hazard classes 1–3.

213-224 10

Objectives. To investigate the influence of side-section flow modes on the energy efficiency of a partially thermally coupled distillation sequence (PTCDS) with a vapor recompression heat pump for the extractive distillation of an allyl alcohol–allyl acetate mixture with n-butyl propionate and identify modes under which the combined use of a PTCDS and heat pump are the most efficient.
Methods. Mathematical modeling in the Aspen Plus V10 software package was used as the main research method. The local composition equation of the non-random two-liquid model was used as a model for describing the vapor–liquid equilibrium, while the Redlich–Kwong model was used to consider the non-ideal vapor phase. When modeling the conventional extractive distillation scheme and PTCDS, parametric optimization was carried out according to the criterion of the total energy costs in the column reboilers. For the economical evaluation, Aspen Process Economic Analyzer V10.1 tools were used.
Results. For extractive distillation of a mixture of allyl alcohol (30 wt %) and allyl acetate (70 wt %) with n-butyl propionate as an entrainer, the minimum energy consumption was achieved at the same side-section flow mode for the variants of a PTCDS with and without a heat pump. The reduction in energy costs relative to the conventional scheme was 20% for the sequence without a heat pump and 38% for that with a heat pump. An economic assessment was made of the best options in comparison with the conventional extractive distillation scheme. The PTCDS with a heat pump had an advantage over the sequence without a heat pump only for long periods of operation.
Conclusions. For the extractive distillation of an allyl alcohol–allyl acetate mixture, the optimal modes for the combined use of a PTCDS with a vapor recompression heat pump coincide with the optimal modes for a PTCDS without a heat pump.


225-231 14

Objectives. The objectives of this work are the development of a multi-primer system based on the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) aimed at the simultaneous detection of six bacterial pathogens that cause human pneumonia and the determination of the parameters important for the optimization of this multi-primer system, including solid-phase PCR systems (biological microarrays).
Methods. To determine the optimal parameters of the system, PCR methods were used in monoplex and multiplex formats.
Results. Primers for Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Haemophilus influenza, Legionella pneumophila, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Streptococcus pneumoniae detection were designed, and the PCR cycling conditions were optimized. The patterns of primer design for solidphase PCR were revealed.
Conclusions. The developed prototype of a system specifically identifies six clinically significant bacterial pathogens. It could be expanded for the analysis of viral and fungal pathogens and used in clinical diagnostics. A prototype of a system for pathogenic agent detection in the immobilized phase (biological microarray) was created.

232-240 14

Objectives. The amount of patients with diabetes is increasing, and such patients experience several long-term complications. Therefore, finding a method to treat the disease and its complications is an urgent issue worldwide. In Vietnam, Phyllanthus amarus Schum. & Thonn. (PA) and Gymnema sylvestre R. Br. (GS) are common herbs used in traditional therapy including diabetes treatment. This study aimed to combine PA and GS to extend their bioactivities in antidiabetes, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory treatments.
Methods. Here, PA and GS powders were mixed at different ratios for extraction. Ethanolic extract was used to detect bioactive compounds, bioactivities, and appropriate ratios of the mixtures.
Results. The optimal ratio for the PA and GS combination was 2 : 1 (g/g). The ethanolic extraction of the 2 : 1 sample at 50°C over two hours with a solid/liquid ratio of 1 : 10 achieved a high yield of 14.37%. This sample exhibited good α-glucosidase inhibition activity with a half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 9.74 µg/mL, antioxidant activity with an IC50 of 29.87 µg/mL, and anti-inflammatory activity with an IC15 of 400 µg/mL.
Conclusions. The study confirmed that combining PA and GS can have high α-glucosidase inhibition as well as antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects.


241-251 9

Objectives. This study investigated the surface properties and micelle formation of combined stabilizers, which are a mixture of ionic and nonionic surfactants or different nonionic surfactants, to establish a correlation between the composition of stabilizers and the colloidal–chemical properties of direct emulsions obtained in their presence.
Methods. The surface tension at the interface between the aqueous solutions of the combined stabilizers with air and toluene was measured using a digital tensiometer. The sedimentation stability of the emulsions was assessed by the volume of the exfoliated water and oil phases for seven days. The particle sizes of the dispersed phase were determined using an Olympus CX3 bright field microscope equipped with a universal serial bus video camera connection. The rheological properties of the emulsions were evaluated using a rotary viscometer.
Results. According to the isotherms of the surface tension of aqueous surfactant solutions at the interface with air and toluene at emulsion preparation temperatures of 50 °C and 65 °C, a mixture of nonionic surfactants exhibited a higher surface activity and lower critical micelle concentration at the interface with toluene. The optimal amount of stabilizers providing stability to the compositions for one month was 4 mass % for a mixture of anionic surfactants and nonionic surfactants and 7 mass % for mixtures of different nonionic surfactants. Emulsions obtained in the presence of a mixture of anionic and nonionic surfactants exhibited higher kinetic sedimentation stability values due to the formation of electrostatic and steric stabilization factors in the system. The developed compositions were microheterogeneous systems, the average droplet diameter of which varied within the range of 1.0–5.7 µm. In terms of rheological properties, emulsions were classified as liquid-like structured systems with coagulation structures; the strength of single contacts between particles of the dispersed phase was (1.6–27.0) × 10-10 N.
Conclusions. A comparison of the physicochemical characteristics of the compositions obtained in the presence of organic emulsifiers showed that emulsions stabilized using a mixture of ionic and nonionic surfactants, which form mixed adsorption layers, exhibited the best set of properties.


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Objectives. The introduction of digital tools for the development of medicines, intelligent management systems, and quality control is stipulated not only by modern requirements for the chemical and pharmaceutical industry but also by strict regulatory requirements for manufactured products. This principle ensures the release of a quality product on the first attempt. The aim of this study is to develop information support for the intelligent quality management system for the production of active pharmaceutical substances (APSs) for medicines using a fundamentally new technology: continuous synthesis in flow microreactors. To develop the necessary information support, we developed appropriate systemic, informational, and mathematical models; algorithms for the online management of the experiment; and techniques and algorithms to qualitatively assess whether the product meets official regulatory documents.
Methods. System analysis techniques, information and mathematical modeling techniques with multireference regression models, and online optimization using the Hook–Jeevs algorithm (a method of expert evaluation based on the concordance factor) were used to solve the problems formulated.
Results. To manage the quality of the process of continuous APS synthesis in the flow microreactor, we developed theoretic multiple system models that were designed to build the digital information environment for the process of experimental research. We developed algorithms for mathematical modeling and optimization of the control process based on multiresponse regression models and an online optimization algorithm that allows the process to be managed step by step, taking into account the limitations. Our results show that the degree of conversion is higher in reactions that contain bromodiphenylmethan.
Conclusions. Based on mathematical modeling method algorithms for the quality control of the process of continuous APS synthesis on a fundamentally new microreactor system, Qmix were developed. The applicability of the proposed methods and algorithms in the production of the drug diphenhydramine from chlorobenzohydrol and bromobenzohydrol as initial substances was proven by an experimental study. The built models were statistically adequate and valid.

ISSN 2410-6593 (Print)
ISSN 2686-7575 (Online)