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Development of an encapsulation process for toxic waste and hazardous chemicals in a fluidized bed

https://doi.org/10.32362/2410-6593-2021-16-3-199-212

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Abstract

Objectives. This paper presents research results on the encapsulation of a fluidized bed of liquid and solid toxic waste containing chemicals with a hazard class of 1–3.
Methods. Soils contaminated with hexachlorobenzene and hexachlorocyclohexane were used as the seed material. Ceresin was selected as the encapsulant, which was sprayed onto the fluidized bed through a pneumatic nozzle at a temperature of 135°C. Before the spraying of the ceresin, binders were introduced into the fluidized bed of the seed material through pneumatic nozzles in the form of a melt of high-temperature coal-tar pitch and wastewater containing sodium and arsenic salts as well as heavy metal oxides. The experiments were carried out using a modified GLATT AGT-150 laboratory unit.
Results. The results demonstrate that the mechanism for granule formation is a mixed mechanism. The binding of the seed material is carried out by both the pitch and salting out. In this case, the cavities in the agglomerates are partially filled with salt deposits, which increases the strength and integrity of the final product’s structure. Ranges for the process parameter values were established at the point at which there was no unwanted agglomeration in the fluidized bed, and dust formation did not exceed 5%. When the ratio of the bed mass to the mass of ceresin is equal to unity, a moisture-resistant free-flowing product of hazard class 5 is obtained, which is suitable for transportation and long-term storage. The average diameters of the initial particles and encapsulated granules were 0.5 and 1.5 mm, respectively.
Conclusions. The present study demonstrates a potential process for the granulation– encapsulation of toxic waste and hazardous substances with a hazard class of 1–3 in a single fluid-bed apparatus, resulting in the formation of a moisture-resistant hazard class-5 granular product suitable for transportation and long-term storage. The results obtained can be used in the development of an industrial large-scale process for encapsulating waste of hazard classes 1–3.

About the Authors

Yu. A. Eleev
State Research Institute of Organic Chemistry and Technology
Russian Federation

Yuri A. Eleev, Cand. Sci. (Eng.), Assistant Professor, Head of Department

23, Shosse Entuziastov, Moscow, 111024 



Yu. S. Bogoyavlenskaya
State Research Institute of Organic Chemistry and Technology
Russian Federation

Yulia S. Bogoyavlenskaya, Researcher

23, Shosse Entuziastov, Moscow, 111024 



E. N. Glukhan
State Research Institute of Organic Chemistry and Technology
Russian Federation

Elena N. Glukhan, Dr. Sci. (Eng.), Assistant Professor, Adviser of Director General

23, Shosse Entuziastov, Moscow, 111024

Scopus Author ID 8706397600 



V. F. Golovkov
State Research Institute of Organic Chemistry and Technology
Russian Federation

Vladimir F. Golovkov, Dr. Sci. (Chem.), Chief Researcher

23, Shosse Entuziastov, Moscow, 111024

Scopus Author ID 7005127502 



V. V. Afanasiev
State Research Institute of Organic Chemistry and Technology
Russian Federation

Vladimir V. Afanasiev, Cand. Sci. (Eng.), Deputy Head of Department

23, Shosse Entuziastov, Moscow, 111024 



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For citation:


Eleev Yu.A., Bogoyavlenskaya Yu.S., Glukhan E.N., Golovkov V.F., Afanasiev V.V. Development of an encapsulation process for toxic waste and hazardous chemicals in a fluidized bed. Fine Chemical Technologies. 2021;16(3):199-212. (In Russ.) https://doi.org/10.32362/2410-6593-2021-16-3-199-212

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ISSN 2410-6593 (Print)
ISSN 2686-7575 (Online)