Fine Chemical Technologies

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Vol 8, No 3 (2013)
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3-8 139
The article describes the contribution of V.I. Vernadsky to science and the scientific worldview. The features of scientific thinking of V.I. Vernadsky, his natural scientific and philosophical interests and the role of Vernadsky’s ideas in the development of the modern scientific world are discussed.
9-14 141
It was a key idea of Vernadsky that scientific progress is an objective phenomenon and for that reason cannot be resisted. He believed that it was important to understand this objectivity in order to regulate and control the scientific progress. He believed that his conclusions that the mankind changes the whole biosphere by means of the scientific progress were of great value. According to Vernadsky, this change is taking place as a natural process, but science should get involved in this process and regulate and influence it. In this case the influence of Reason and, therefore, of science, on the evolution of the planet itself becomes a powerful geological process. Moreover, the very process itself acquires a direction, which can be influenced, by trying to predict and avoid the negative consequences, accompanying the progress of science. Many arguments of Vernadsky not only remain valid today, but become more and more significant. Vernadsky wrote about the role of state support of fundamental research, that it would have been erroneous and even illiterate to consider only the applied aspects of science, to see science as an immediate response to the everyday problems. He emphasized that both the fundamental and applied scientific knowledge are naturally connected and form a whole science. Vernadsky insisted that the Academy of Sciences should grow and develop. He emphasized the role of higher education, representing the level of development of science and knowledge in the country. In our time those countries are the winners which have science and knowledge on their side. He was convinced that without independently developing science no country has real prospects.
15-19 174
As the article shows, V.I.Vernadskiy considered noosphere as stage in the process of biosphere`s evolution, which started when a man appeared on Earth. The principle difference between conceptions of "noosphere" and "information field" is described. The history of creating "noosphere theory" as well as conditions for using scientists`s activity for the purpose of safe of biosphere`s unity are also proposed in the article. The importance of economic science in concordance of economic and natural laws for safe of biosphere and further evolution of biosphere into noosphere is noted.
20-28 145
Article is devoted to the great Russian scientist and philosopher, academician Vladimir Ivanovich Vernadsky (1863−1945). Bases of the mineralogical school established by V.I. Vernadsky and course of mineralogy are still relevant today
29-33 159
New technology to obtain Re, Ni, Co hydroxides, simple and complex oxides, fine and nanosized powders of metals and alloys has been developed. Mono- and heterometallic nickel, rhenium and cobalt alkoxides with adjustable metal content were used as precursors to produce final powders.
34-48 192
In the territory of Kazakhstan there are unique deposits, in which, along with non-ferrous metals, there are also other very valuable metals such as rhenium and isotope osmium-187. Kazakhstan is one of the leaders in the world in the production of ammonium perrhenate. This article is dedicated to the evolution in the organization of the production of rhenium compounds from various technogenic products resulting during processing of substandard molybdenum, copper, and lead concentrates and solutions of underground leaching of uranium ores for the production of the target metals. The first production of rhenium salts was organized in 1946 from dust resulting after oxidative roasting of sub-standard molybdenite concentrate. Later washing sulfuric acid of copper production and solutions from leaching of dusts of lead dust production were involved into the production of ammonium perrhenate. Data on the distribution of rhenium in these industries are given with the determination of rhenium in the gas phase by the technique developed by researchers of "Center of the Earth Sciences, Metallurgy and Ore Benificiation" (“CESMOB”). The flow sheets of implemented and adopted to implementation technologies of rhenium recovery from solid and liquid products elaborated by “CESMOB" are given in the article. Basic processes for the recovery of rhenium from the initial solutions are sorption and solvent extraction. For the recovery of rhenium from mother liquors obtained in the sorption and extraction technologies precipitation of rhenium in the form of complex salt [Zn(NH3)4](ReO4)2 was used.
49-57 273
The article deals with the history of the production of rare earth elements (REE) in the Soviet Union, the changes that have occurred in connection with the collapse of the Union, the role of JSC "Solikamsk Magnesium Works" (JSC "SMW") in the rare metal industry today. It is shown that the introduction of chlorine processing method of loparite concentrate allowed to include in the work cycle about a quarter of the chlorine volume produced by the electrolysis of MgCl2 and laid the foundation for the economic sustainability of the enterprise. The prospects of the development of REE production in our country are scheduled.
58-62 162
In the frame of conceptual density functional theory the chemical shifts values (δ) of signals in 13C NMR spectra of substituted allylic Pd(II) complexes were calculated considering equilibrium population of conformers in aqueous solution. On the basis that δ values of signals of unsubstituted terminal carbons C3 are in linear relationship with charge on C3, Pd-C3 bond length, electron chemical potential μ, hardness η and electrophilicity index ω as well, 13C NMR chemical shifts for C3 can be used as descriptors of chemical reactivity of anionic allylic Pd(II) complexes.
63-66 180
The influence of a low-viscosity reactive solvent containing glycidyl ether on the rheological properties of a polyfunctional epoxy resin at different temperatures was studied. The energy of activation of viscous flow was determined. Heat-resistant polymer binders based on the epoxy resin and a reactive solvent with a viscosity from 0.08 to 0.6 Pa∙s to impregnate the reinforcing fiber fillers were developed.
67-69 180
The principal possibility of increasing the efficiency of the catalytic cracking of hydrotreated vacuum gas oil by its activation by the action of hydrodynamic cavitation is shown. The achieved effect is to increase the yield of gasoline and to reduce the yield of coke.
70-75 148
The mathematical model of a recycled flow sheet is studied. The number of degrees of freedom is determined, and different sets of the simulation task are considered. Analytical and numerical calculation of the recycled flow sheet steady states is performed.
76-86 202
The work deals with the terms synergism and synergic systems evolution. The analysis of literatre sources in which the results of synergic effects study in polymer`s technology are presented, is carried out. Modern approaches to estimate synergic effects, identification, analysis and synergic systems forming are reviewed, and that allows scientifically-based solving the practical receipt-biilding tasks of polymer materials and their processing technological processes parameters choice.
87-94 128
A new experimental technique for obtaining diagnostic test systems is introduced based on conjugates "polymer microsphere–bioligand" for rapid diagnosis of autoantibodies to the modified protein on example of thyroglobulin, which consists of preliminary blocking of aldehyde groups of polymer microspheres by glycine amine groups, and then of the covalent interaction between carboxyl group of glycine and the amino groups of thyroglobulin. This way of creating test systems has enhanced the sensitivity of the reaction of latex agglutination (RLA) by extending the boundaries of titer.
95-98 193
The process of the oxidative chlorination of methane carried out in a flow reactor was investigated in the temperature range of 370–400°C under a pressure of 1–9 ata. The catalyst is a mixture of copper chloride, potassium chloride and lanthanum chloride on a porous support. The molar ratio CuCl2:KCl:LaCl3 is 1:1:0.3. The process was studied in an excess of methane at the reactants ratio CH4:HCl:O2 12:2:1 and 13.5:1:0.5. It was shown experimentally that the productivity of the methane oxychlorination reactor increases proportionally to pressure in the degree ~ 0.85. It was found that an increase in the selectivity of the methane oxychlorination process to the desired product – methyl chloride – (more than 90%) is achieved by increasing the ratio of methane to the sum of hydrogen chloride and oxygen.
99-106 194
The process of pyrolysis of methyl chloride with the use of a silicoaluminophosphate catalyst granulated with Al2O3, the content of which varied in a range of 40–60 weight %, is investigated. The synthesized catalyst SAPO-34/Al2O3 in a mass ratio 60:40 is performed in the form of tablets for work in a stationary bed, as well as in a microsphere for the fluidized bed. The basic physical and chemical properties of the tested catalysts are determined. Comparison of the behaviour of the synthesized catalysts in the process of methyl chloride pyrolysis in the stationary bed and the fluidized bed is carried out. The process of methyl chloride pyrolysis on the fluidized bed microsphere catalyst is investigated. Temperature was varied in a range of 425–450ºС, the feed rate (WHSV, equivalent to the mass of methyl chloride) was in the range of 0.8–4.8 h−1 , time on stream (TOS) was 2 h. The basic technological parameters of the process providing conversion of methyl chloride not below 70% and selectivity of ethylene formation not lower than 45% are determined.
107-111 164
The preparative gas chromatography method has been used for isolation and analysis of the organochlorsilanes isomers. The reaction of the organochlorsilanes with vapour of the water in the air has been studied. The method for isolation of the organochlorsilanes is proposed. It is based on using chromatographic column with efficiency up to 10000 theoretical plates. A high degree of purity (up to 99%) of the isolated compounds is achieved by an increase of separation selectivity, which is turned results from a temperature decrease. The effect of the parameters of chromatographic experiment (the column length, impregnation degree, the rate of gas-carrier) on the isolation of the compounds boiling up to 400o C was investigated.
112-116 154
In the article a mechanism of pyrocarbon formation on the soot surface by the decomposition of hydrocarbon gases is suggested. The mechanism involves the formation of decomposition products in the gas phase and their adsorption on the active centers of the soot. The defects of a crystal lattice formed on the contact borders of crystallites can be these active centers. Three models of pyrocarbon formation on the surface of a single soot particle and on the surface of soot structures are considered in detail. The results of mathematical calculations and experimental data are also given in the article. We explained the reason of polyextreme dependence of specific surface changing of technical carbon during the pyrocarbon formation process. Substrate influence on the pyrocarbon deposition regularities on the carbon material surface is also established. These regularities must be taken into account at the production of carbon materials if the stage of pyrocarbon formation is available.
117-123 177
The influence of the structure and substrate type on the uniformity of fibrous materials obtained by electrospinning is studied. It is shown that the type of the substrate material makes considerable impact on the properties of fibrous materials.

ISSN 2410-6593 (Print)
ISSN 2686-7575 (Online)