Fine Chemical Technologies

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Vol 10, No 4 (2015)
View or download the full issue PDF (Russian)


5-21 62
А development of stable and safety non-viral transport systems for delivery of therapeutic nucleic acids (NA) into the target cells is one of the problem of gene therapy. Cationic liposomes are promising delivery systems capable to transfer various kind of NA. However, the wide application of cationic liposomes for gene therapy purposes is limited by their low efficiency and unspecific NA delivery into cells. These drawbacks are related to the presence of different biological barriers for lipoplexes: the instability in biological fluids, the interaction with blood serum proteins, plasmatic and nucleic membranes and endosomal degradation. Modular gene delivery systems introduced ten years ago consist of different lipophilic modules that mediate environmental and cellular receptors interactions as well as intracellular trafficking. Modular systems containing synthetic neoglycolipids are widely used for development of targeted gene delivery based on specific carbohydrate-lectin interactions (glycotargeting). This review combines examples of neoglycolipids used as active components of cationic liposomes. Targeted delivery of plasmid DNA, mRNA, oligonucleotides and small interfering RNA into hepatocytes, Kupffer cells and dendritic cells are discussed.
22-26 50
Previously, the scheme of the preparation of a tetravalent neoglycoconjugate with the terminal residues of D-galactose and with a branching component based on D-galactose was carried out in our laboratory. It includes the synthesis of hydrophilic and hydrophobic components, the synthesis of the branching scaffold and its conjugation with a hydrophilic component. This article describes the optimization of the synthesis of 1-O-azidoethyl-β-D-galactopyronaside using the change of different parameters such as temperature, solvent and reaction time. The structure of obtained glycoconjugates has potential to be capable to anti-adhesion and target delivery to certain cell group.
27-31 60
The dependence of characteristics of microspheres and the kinetics of drug release from the particles on the type and intensity of mechanical action on the emulsion upon the preparation of polymeric microspheres containing encapsulated diclofenac based on a copolymer of lactic and glycolic acids was investigated. According to the results of the research conditions were selected for the production of microspheres with the gradual release of drug from the particles during two weeks. The polymer microspheres are promising for further study and creation of prolonged dosage forms of diclofenac on their basis.
32-40 59
The problem of applying refinery outgoing gas (ROG) is considered in this article. Today this gas containing ethylene and propylene doesn’t have any usage in Russia. But it could be a good feedstock for petrochemical industry. In view of ethylene deficiency, the recovery of ethylene from refinery outgoing gas is a very important problem. In order to solve this problem the advantage of applying ROG as an alternative feedstock for ethylene production was suggested in this article. Various methods of applying refinery outgoing gas were introduced. The economic advisability was demonstrated. The technology of gas purification was suggested. Combination of refinery processes and ethylene production allows increasing the degree of petroleum refining and getting profit by recovering ethylene from ROG.
41-48 47
The analysis of properties of the internal tangential azeotrope that leads to biazeotropy as a result of the bifurcation was carried. Internal tangential azeotrope has a number of specific properties, some of which is identical to usual binary azeotropes, and the other part of properties has certain characteristics peculiar only to this type of singular points. There was considered the evolution of binary zeotropic mixture to binary biazeotropic mixture in two ways: through the formation of boundary tangential azeotropes and through the formation of internal tangential azeotropes (ITA). As the mathematical model for description of basic properties of ITA van der Waals equation was used. To describe additional properties the analysis of ITA in terms of excess thermodynamic functions was carried.
49-55 66
The number of freedom degrees of the separation complex comprising three rectification columns and Florentine vessel was determined. A ternary system isopropyl alcohol - acetonitrile - hexane characterized by the presence of three binary and one ternary azeotrope and a splitting area of the closed type was chosen as a research object. Variants of choosing free variables for determining the amounts and compositions of all material flows were proposed. On the basis of analysis of the mutual arrangement of separatrixes and tie-lines it was shown that it is not possible to realize limit rectification modes at the same time in all columns. Static parameters of the rectification columns were obtained.


56-63 50
The results of identification of the main operational properties of metallocomplex catalysts solutions for non-extractive oxidative sweetening of natural hydrocarbons and their products are provided in this article. These catalysts allow carrying out the catalytic oxidation of hydrogen sulfide and mercaptans in hydrocarbon media directly. This method allows to exclude from the technological cycle the need to use large volumes of extracting agents (aqueous alkaline solutions), which greatly simplifies the purification technology and eliminates the stage of recycling sulfuralkaline waste. These catalysts are oxidizing systems, which can have a negative impact on their storage and use. Therefore, it was necessary to determine the influence of the synthesis conditions and the composition of the catalyst solution on viscosity, pour point, surface tension and corrosion properties. The impact of storage duration and its conditions on the catalysts activity in the oxidation of H2S and light mercaptans in oil and oil products was studied. The results showed that the catalytic systems based on copper salts and amino alcohols correspond to the requirements for industrial applications.
64-69 70
Natural gas conversion is a complex dynamic process in need of constant monitoring. Improvement and automation of its steps is of great importance for upgrading quality and reducing cost. Conversion optimisation requires application of modern analytical instrumentation. Current analytical technics are time consuming, lack versatility and hardly prone to automation. In this work, development of comprehensive analytical procedure for control of triglycol contaminants accumulating during gas drying step is discussed. This procedure is based on LC-MS/MS, GCMS and multiparametric statistical analysis. The analytical procedure presented in this work is rapid and allows determining a wide range of triglycol contaminants.
70-78 43
Asymptotic solutions of the non-local relativistic hydrodynamic equations are investigated. Solutions of the mentioned system of equations were found for the limit case of the photon motion. The limit transfer of the non-local relativistic equations to the non-relativistic non-local Alexeev equations is considered.
79-86 49
The practically important problem of unsteady heat conduction with time-varying relative coefficient of heat transfer is considered. Systematization of different approaches for finding the analytical solution of the problem is shown: the method of splitting the generalized Fourier integral; expanding the desired temperature function in a power series; reduction of the problem to an integral Voltaire equation of the second kind. It is shown that in all cases the solution is reduced to an infinite series of successive approximations of various functional forms, and the main goal of each approach is to find the more successful of the first approximations. Particular cases of the time dependence of the relative heat transfer coefficient are considered: linear, exponential, degree, root. The analytical solutions and numerical experiments, the peculiarities of the temperature curves for a number of specified dependencies are given. It was established that in case of the time-linear heat transfer coefficient the temperature curve changes significantly differ in comparison with the classical case of constant coefficient, while exponential dependence makes no substantive difference.

ISSN 2410-6593 (Print)
ISSN 2686-7575 (Online)