Fine Chemical Technologies

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Vol 10, No 2 (2015)
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5-19 362
Low-temperature non-equilibrium plasmas have been extensively investigated due to their low-temperature properties and controllability of various agents such as radicals, ions, UV and electric fields, making them suitable for a wide range of biomedical applications. This paper presents an overview of the current status and potential of plasmachemical technologies for production of novel bioactive materials, fictionalization of organic polymers, deposition of organic and inorganic coatings, and plasma processing of biomaterials, sterilization, treatment of mammalian and cancerous cells, blood coagulation, wound healing and dental treatments. The brief summary and characterization of various low-temperature nonequilibrium plasmas used in biology and medicine (corona discharge, radio-frequency and microwave gas discharges, electron-beam plasma) are given. The physical-chemical processes of plasmachemical polymers modification and coatings synthesis, as well as mechanisms responsible for the biological effects are described.
20-24 424
The article considers the results of identifying the disinfectant water-soluble guanidines polymers by means of methods including spectrophotometry, infrared spectroscopy, fluorescence analysis, as well as the use of gold nanoparticles. The present work describes the results of polyhexamethyleneguanidine (PHMG) identification in finished compositions. It is shown that auxiliary components such as quaternary ammonium compounds prevent the identification of the PHMG in the mixture. So, most known methods are ineffective or require additional manipulations. The method of quantitative analysis of polyhexamethyleneguanidine (PHMG) and polyhexamethylenebiguanidine (PHMB) in disinfectants by means of two-phase titration with sodium dodecyl sulfate in the presence of bromophenol blue indicator was proposed. The end point was detected visually. This method allows taking into account the additive contributions of quaternary ammonium compounds in PHMG titration results. In this case, the titration at all stages of the determination of PHMG is conducted with sodium dodecy sulfate solutions with the same concentrations and the same weighed portions of sample are taking. Other disinfectants, namely hydrogen peroxide, alcohols, primary, secondary, tertiary amines, including N,N-bis(3-aminopropyl)dodecylamine present in the solution do not interfere with the identification of PHMG.
25-34 251
In this paper we consider the levitation phenomenon using the generalized Bolzmann kinetics theory which can represent the non-local physics of levitation. This approach can identify the conditions when the levitation can take place under the influence of correlated electromagnetic and gravitational fields. The sufficient mathematical conditions of levitation are obtained. It means that the regime of levitation could be realized from the position of the non-local hydrodynamics.
35-40 199
Various variants of setting up the rectification simulation task (verification task and design task) were considered with the distillation of binary mixtures as an example. Based on the analysis of degrees of freedom the interrelation between the character of the simulation problem and the types of operating parameters was determined. It is shown that, when dealing with the verification task, it is necessary to exclude a dramatic difference in the properties of the initial mixture and the liquid phase located on a feed plate.
41-46 183
The article considers the transformation of the structures of contour diagrams for scalar properties of three-component homogeneous mixtures (composition-property diagrams). Conditions for the implementation of bifurcation continuum and the bifurcation states accompanied by a change in the number of binary singular points are discussed. There is a particular type of bifurcation for isolines for scalar properties due to the inversion of the values of the properties of the individual components when changing an external parameter. The results show that the existing classes of composition-property diagrams for ternary homogeneous mixtures form a single set, and mutual transitions between components of its subset can occur under the influence of external parameters. Besides, examples of transformation of nonbifurcation composition-property diagrams are given: maintaining the topological structure of the graph changes the geometric course of the contour inside the concentration triangle.


47-52 595
The adsorption of the washing components solution on clean and contaminated cotton fabric in water with various hardness have been investigated. The order of magnitude of the heats of adsorption of Ca2+ salts indicates the occurrence of a chemical reaction of hardness salts with negatively charged fibers of the fabric. Addition of a complexing agent reduces the concentration of calcium salts in solution. It was shown that the adsorption of nonionic surfactant and anionic surfactant mixtures on fabrics is higher than that for individual surfactants. The presence of a binary chelator in solution increases the adsorption ability and detergency of the compositions in hard water.


53-60 301
This work is devoted to the study of electrochemical dissolution of nickel-rhenium (10% wt.) alloy and nickel-rhenium (20% wt.) alloy. The study was carried out under pulsed current in acidic electrolytes (sulfuric, nitric and hydrochloric acids). It was established that the highest dissolution rate of alloys was achieved at the current pulse amplitude of 1.0-1.5 A, current pulse duration of 500 ms, pause between pulses 50 ms. It is difficult to know exactly which areas meet the electrochemical reaction, but at the expense of depolarization the polarization curve is divided into several sections, each of which correspond to electrochemical reactions. It was shown that both the galvanostatic and potentiostatic modes occur in the selective dissolution of nickel and rhenium. Moreover, the rate of dissolution of nickel and rhenium depends on the acidic electrolyte (sulfuric acid, nitric acid, hydrochloric acid), the ratio of the concentrations of components in the solution, and the content of nickel and rhenium on the surface of the alloy in the nickel-rhenium (10% wt.) and nickel-rhenium (20% wt.) alloys. It was revealed that the highest dissolution rate for the nickel-rhenium (10% wt.) alloy (10.76 g/A·h) is achieved by dissolving in nitric acid, which is less than the dissolution rate of the nickelrhenium (20% wt.) alloy (12.08 g/A·h) in nitric acid. In contrast, in sulfuric and hydrochloric acids the dissolution rate of nickel-rhenium (20% wt.) alloy is much higher compared to the nickel-rhenium (10% wt.) alloy.
61-66 277
It is shown that by varying the conditions of pyrolytic carbon coating of carbon nanofibers and activating the resulting carbon composites it is possible to obtain carbon-carbon composite materials with a wide range of characteristics. Mathematical models of processes of pyrolytic carbon coating of the source material and the activation of the obtained composite allow to determine the area of the process.


67-70 279
Some widely used for structuring process analysis means of quantic interpretation of rheometric curves is observed. For this purpose the non-linear models, having the correlation with vulcanization characteristics, are being used. On the big basis of data the favor of modification coordinate axes using by the structuring processes graphical interpretation is shown. The developed methods are good to use in the mixing and vulcanization processes analyzing and control.
71-77 262
Polysterene suspensions with particle diameters of 0.05-0.2 microns and narrow distribution by sizes can be synthesized at polymerization of styrene in high-disperse emulsions at high temperature and low concentration of monomer in the presence of ionic surfactant. Monodisperse polymeric suspensions with a diameter of particles 0.2 microns were prepared only in the presence of water-soluble inhibitor.
78-82 267
Foaming of rigid PVC composites filled with chalk by azodicarbonamide was studied. Crosslinking PVC and increase in PVC viscosity during filling were found to have the greatest impact on foaming.

ISSN 2410-6593 (Print)
ISSN 2686-7575 (Online)