Preview

Fine Chemical Technologies

Advanced search

Inorganic synthesis: new tendencies and new potentials

Full Text:

Abstract

This paper briefly reviews some perspective methods of synthesis successfully used in recent years in inorganic chemistry. Emphasis is placed on spark plasma sintering, synthesis in flux metal and synthesis of nanoparticles and clusters in ionic liquids. Besides, the paper briefly discusses some other approaches to inorganic synthesis, the use of which is perspective in the near future.

About the Author

A. V. Shevelkov
МГУ им. М.В. Ломоносова
Russian Federation


References

1. Anselmi-Tamburini U., Kodera Y., Gasch M., Unuvar C., Munir Z.A., Ohyanagi M., Johnson S.M. Synthesis and characterization of dense ultra-high temperature thermal protection materials produced by field activation through spark plasma sintering (SPS): I. Hafnium diboride// J. Mater. Sci. 2006. V. 41. № 10. P. 3097-3104.

2. Hulbert D.M., Anders A., Andersson J., Hulbert D.M., Anders A., Andersson J., Lavernia E.J., Mukherjee A.K. A discussion on the absence of plasma in spark plasma sintering // Scripta Mater. 2009. V. 60. № 10. P. 835-838.

3. Monchoux J.-P., Dollé M., Rozier P., Galy J. Reaction kinetics during synthesis of CuXV2O5 and AgYV2O5 by spark plasma sintering // Solid State Ionics. 2011. V. 182. № 1. P. 24-31.

4. Dumont-Botto E., Bourbon C., Patoux S., Rozier P., Dolle M. Synthesis by spark plasma sintering: A new way to obtain electrode materials for lithium ion batteries // J. Power Sources. 2011. V. 196. № 4. P. 2274-2278.

5. Shimizu H., Yoshinaka H., Hirota K., Yamaguchi O. Fabrication and mechanical properties of monolithic MoSi2 by spark plasma sintering // Mat. Res. Bull. 2002. V. 37. № 9. P. 1557-1563.

6. Liu H.Q., Song Y., Zhang S.N., Zhao X.B., Wang F.P. Thermoelectric properties of Ca3-xYxCo4O9+Δ ceramics // J. Phys. Chem. Solids. 2009. V. 70. № 3-4. P. 600-603.

7. Huo D., Tang G., Fu C., Li L. Synthesis and transport properties of In4(Se1−xTex)3 // J. Electr. Mater. 2011. V. 40. № 5. Р. 1202-1205.

8. Zaikina J.V., Shevelkov A.V. <http://elibrary.ru/author_items.asp?authorid=50265>, Kovnir K., Schwarz U., Grin Y., Mori T., Teschner D., Senyshyn A. Bulk and surface structure and high-temperature thermoelectric properties of inverse clathrate-III in the Si-P-Te system // Chem. Eur. J. 2010. V. 16. № 42. P. 12582-12589.

9. Luo W., Li H., Yan Y., Lin Z.1, Tang X., Zhang Q., Uher C. Rapid synthesis of high thermoelectric performance higher manganese silicide with in-situ formed nano-phase of MnSi // Intermetallics. 2011. V. 19. № 3. P. 404-408.

10. Omori M. , Onoki T., Hashida T. , Okubo A., Murakami Y. Low temperature synthesis of hydroxyapatite from CaHPO4·2H2O and Ca(OH)2 based on effect of the spark plasma system (SPS) / Ceramics Int. 2006. V. 32. № 6. P. 617-621.

11. Sinha K., Pearson B., Casolco S.R., Garay J.E., Graeve O.A. Synthesis and consolidation of BaAl2Si2O8:Eu: Development of an integrated process for luminescent smart ceramic materials // J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 2009. V. 92. № 11. P. 2504-2511.

12. Li B., Wang X., Cai M., Hao L., Li L. Densification of uniformly small-grained BaTiO3 using spark-plasma-sintering // Mater. Chem. Phys. 2003. V. 82. № 1. P. 173-180.

13. Zeng H., Zhang J., Kuang C. In-situ reaction synthesis of pure bulk gadolinium dihydride materials // Intermetallics. 2010. V. 18. № 3. P. 369-373.

14. Luo X., Zhang J., Guo X., Xu B., Wu Q., Hu Q., Liu Z. // J. Mater. Sci. 2006. V. 41. № 23. Р. 8352.

15. Zamana A.C., Üstündag C.B., Celik A., Kara A., Kaya F., Kaya Cengiz. Carbon and spark plasma sintering (SPS) // J. Eur. Ceram. Soc. 2010. V. 30. Р. 3351-3356.

16. Fei C., Zhang Y., Yang Z. [et al.] // J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 2011. V. 323. Р. 1811.

17. Valenzuela R., Beji Z., Herbst F., Ammar S. Ferromagnetic resonance behavior of spark plasma sintered Ni-Zn ferrite nanoparticles produced by a chemical route // J. Appl. Phys. 2011. V. 109. № 7. Р. 329-332.

18. Khobta I., Petukhov O., Vasylkiv O., Sakka <http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0925838810027337> Y., Ragulya A. Synthesis and consolidation of TiN/TiB2 ceramic composites via reactive spark plasma sintering // J. Alloys Compd. 2011. V. 509. № 5. Р. 1601-1606. Полупроводники А2В4С25 / под ред. Н.А. Горюновой и Ю.А. Валова. - М.: Советское радио, 1974. 374 c.

19. Kanatzidis M.G., Pöttgen R., Jeitschko W. The metal flux - A preparative tool for the exploration of intermetallic compounds // Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2005. V. 44. Р. 6996-7023.

20. Corbett J.D. Exploratory synthesis: The fascinating and diverse chemistry of polar intermetallic phases // Inorg. Chem. 2010. V. 49. Р. 13-28.

21. Fokwa B.P.T., Misse P.R.N., Gilleßen M., Dronskowski R. Sn-flux synthesis, characterizations and bonding analyses of OsB and TiB2 // J. Alloys Compd. 2010. V. 489. № 2. P. 339-342.

22. Paschke D., Wallinda J., Jeitschko W. The missing stacking variant 4-MnP4, realized for the solid solution Cr1- xMnxP4 ( x = 0.3-0.7) // J. Solid State Chem. 1996. V. 122. № 1. Р. 206-213.

23. Avila M.A., Suekuni K., Umeo K., Fukuoka H., Yamanaka S., Takabatake T. Glasslike versus crystalline thermal conductivity in carrier-tuned Ba8Ga16X30 clathrates (X = Ge, Sn) // Phys Rev B. 2006. V. 74. № 12. Р. 125109-125117.

24. Okada S., Shishido T., Ishizawa Y., Ogawa M., Kudou K., Fukuda T., Lundstrom T. Crystal growth by molten metal flux method and properties of manganese silicides // J. Alloys Compd. 2001. V. 317-318. P. 315-319.

25. Zhang F.X., Xu F.F., Leithe-Jasper A., Mori T., Tanaka T., Sato A., Salamakha P., Bando Y. Incorporation of carbon atoms in rare earth boron-rich solids and formation of // J. Alloys Compd. 2002. V. 337. № 1-2. P. 120-127.

26. Inosov D.S., White J.S.,. Evtushinsky D.V, Morozov <http://publish.aps.org/search/field/author/Morozov_I_V> I.V., Cameron <http://publish.aps.org/search/field/author/Cameron_A> A., Stockert <http://publish.aps.org/search/field/author/Stockert_U> U., Zabolotnyy <http://publish.aps.org/search/field/author/Zabolotnyy_V_B> V.B., Kim <http://publish.aps.org/search/field/author/Kim_T_K> T.K., Kordyuk <http://publish.aps.org/search/field/author/Kordyuk_A_A> A.A., Borisenko <http://publish.aps.org/search/field/author/Borisenko_S_V> S.V., Forgan <http://publish.aps.org/search/field/author/Forgan_E_M> E.M., Klingeler <http://publish.aps.org/search/field/author/Klingeler_R> R., Park <http://publish.aps.org/search/field/author/Park_J_T> J.T., Wurmehl <http://publish.aps.org/search/field/author/Wurmehl_S> S., Vasiliev <http://publish.aps.org/search/field/author/Vasiliev_A_N> A.N., Behr <http://publish.aps.org/search/field/author/Behr_G> G., Dewhurst <http://publish.aps.org/search/field/author/Dewhurst_C_D> C.D., Hinkov <http://publish.aps.org/search/field/author/Hinkov_V> V. Weak superconducting pairing and a single isotropic energy gap in stoichiometric LiFeAs // Phys. Rev. Lett. 2010. V. 104. № 18. Р. 187001-187005. Schlüter M., Häussermann U., Heying B., Pöttgen R. TiN-magnesium substitution in Ir3SN7-structure and chemical bonding in MgXIR3SN7-X (X = 0-1.67) // J. Solid State Chem. 2003. V. 173. № 2. Р. 418-424.

27. Nordmark E.-L., Wallner O., Häussermann U. Polymorphism of IrSN4 // J. Solid State Chem. 2002. V. 168. № 1. Р. 34-40.

28. Thurn H., Krebs H. Über Struktur und Eigenschaften der Halbmetalle. XXII. Die Kristallstruktur des Hittorfschen Phosphors // Acta Crystallogr. 1969. B 25. Р. 125-135.

29. Eschen M., Jeitschko W. Au2PbP2, Au2TlP2, and Au2HgP2: Ternary gold polyphosphides with lead, thallium, and mercury in the oxidation state zero // J. Solid State Chem. 2002. V. 165. № 2. Р. 238-246.

30. Mathieu J., Achey R., Park J.-H., Purcell K.M., Tozer S.W., Latturner S.E. Flux growth and electronic properties of Ba2In5Pn5 (Pn = P, As): Zintl phases exhibiting metallic behavior // Chem. Mater. 2008. V. 20. Р. 5675-5681. Xia S-Q., Hullmann J., Bobev S. Gallium substitutions as a means to stabilize alkaline-earth and rare-earth metal pnictides with the cubic Th3P4 type. Synthesis and structure of A7Ga2Sb6 (A = Sr, Ba, Eu) // J. Solid State Chem. 2008. V. 181. Р. 1909-1914.

31. Salvador J.R., Gour J.R., Bilc D., Mahanti S.D., Kanatzidis M.G. Stabilization of new forms of the intermetallic phases-RENiGe2 (RE = Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu) in liquid indium <http://wos4.isiknowledge.com/CIW.cgi?SID=QIQvNArg-GkAAF-COu0&Func=Abstract&doc=1/7> // Inorg. Chem. 2004. V. 43. Р. 1403-1410.

32. Pfannenschmidt U., Johrendt D., Behrends F., Eckert H., Eul M., Pöttgen R. P22- and P3- units in the [Rh8P9] - polyanion of La4Rh8P9 // Inorg. Chem. 2011. V. 50. Р. 3044-3051.

33. Thompson C.M., Kovnir K., Eveland S., Herring M.J., Shatruk M. Synthesis of ThCr2Si2-type arsenides from Bi flux // Chem. Commun. 2011. V. 47. Р. 5563-5565.

34. Phelan W.A., Nguyen G.V., Karki A.B., Young D.P., Chan J.Y. Synthesis, structure, magnetic and transport properties of LnFeSb3 (Ln = Pr, Nd, Sm, Gd, and Tb)--tuning of anisotropic long-range magnetic order as a function of Ln. // Dalton Trans. 2010. V. 39. № 28. Р. 6403-6409.

35. Wu X., Kanatzidis M.G. ReAuAl4Ge2 and ReAuAl4(Au XGe1-X)2 (Re = rare earth element): quaternary intermetallics grown in liquid aluminum // J. Solid State Chem. 2005. V. 178. № 11. Р. 3233-3242.

36. Condron C.L., Kauzlarich S.M., Ikeda T., Snyder G.J., Haarmann F, Jeglic P. Structure and high temperature properties of boron-doped Ba8Al14Si31 clathrate I phases // Inorg Chem. 2008. V. 47. Р. 8204-8212.

37. Korsukova M.M., Lundström T., Gurin V.N., Tergenius L.-E. X-ray investigaition of lanthanum hexaboride// Z. Kristallogr. 1984. V. 168. Р. 299-306.

38. Yamada T., Yamane H. Low-temperature synthesis of α- and β-MoSi2 powders using Na // J. Alloys Compd. 2011. V. 509. Р. L23- L 25.

39. Kawamura F., Watanabe K., Takeda T., Taniguchi T. Synthesis of high-crystallinity cubic-GaN nanoparticles using the Na flux method - A proposed new usage for a belt-type high-pressure apparatus // J. Crystal Growth. 2011. 321. № 1. Р. 100-105.

40. Bailey M.S., Li Q., Lobkovsky E.B., Hinks D. G., Mitchell J.F. The Heusler phases LiRh2Si and LiRh2Ge: Synthesis, structure and properties // J. Solid State Chem. 2008. V. 181. Р. 30-36.

41. Reynolds P.C., Stojanovic M., Latturner S.E. Flux growth of a new cobalt-zinc-tin ternary phase Co(7+x)Zn(3-x)Sn8 and its relationship to CoSn // J. Solid State Chem. 2011. V. 184. Р. 1875-1881.

42. Stojanovic M., Latturner S.E. Europium substitution into intermetallic phases gGrown in Ca/Zn flux // J. Solid State Chem. 2009. V. 182. Р. 2239-2245.

43. Lang D.A., Zaikina J.V., Lovingood. D.D., Gedris T.E., Latturner S.E. A new complex carbide hydride phase grown in metal flux // J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2010. V. 132. № 49. Р. 17523-17530.

44. Zaikina J.V., Jo Y.-J., Latturner S.E. Ruthenium intermetallics grown from La-Ni flux: Synthesis, structure, and physical properties // Inorg. Chem. 2010. V. 49. № 6. Р. 2773-2781.

45. Асланов Л.А., Захаров М.А., Абрамычева Н.Л. Ионные жидкости в ряду растворителей. - М.: Изд-во Московского университета, 2005. 272 с.

46. Morris R.E. Ionothermal synthesis - Ionic liquids as functional solvents in the preparation of crystalline materials // Chem. Commun. 2009. V. 45. № 21. Р. 2990-2998.

47. Peuronen A., Lahtinen M., Valkonen J. The conformational polymorphism and weak interactions in solid state structures of ten new monomeric and dimeric substituted dibenzyldimethylammonium chloridopalladate salts // Cryst. Eng. Comm. 2009. № 11. Р. 2344-2357.

48. Gorlov M., Kloo L. Ionic liquid electrolytes for dye-sensitized solar cells // Dalton Trans. 2008. V. 37. Р. 2655-2666.

49. Liu X., Zhao J., Sun Y., Song K., Yu Y., Du C., Kong X.G., Zhang H. Ionothermal synthesis of hexagonal-phase NaYF4:Yb3+, Er3+/Tm3+ upconversion nanophosphors // Chem. Commun. 2009. V. 43. Р. 6628-6630.

50. Durmus Z., Kavas H., Baykal A., Toprak M.S. A green chemical route for the synthesis of Mn3O4 nanoparticles // Cent. Eur. J. Chem. 2009. V. 7. № 3. Р. 555-559.

51. Al-Salman R., Endres F. Template-assisted electrodeposition of SixGe1-x nanowires with varying length and composition from two different ionic liquids // J. Mater. Chem. 2009. V. 19. Р. 7228-7731.

52. Zhao Y., Chen Zh., Wang H., Wang J. // Crystal Growth Design. 2009. V. 9. Р. 4984-4986.

53. Parnham E.R., Drylie E.A., Wheatley P.S., Slawin A.M.Z., Morris R.E. Ionothermal materials synthesis using unstable deep-eutectic solvents as template-delivery agents // Angew. Chem. 2006. V. 45. Р. 4962-4966.

54. Liu L., Wragg D. S., Zhang H., Kong Y., Byrne P.J., Prior T.J., Warren J.E., Lin Z., Dong J., Morris R.E. Ionothermal synthesis, structure and characterization of three-dimensional zinc phosphates // Dalton Trans. 2009. V. 38. Р. 6715-6718.

55. Ahmed E., Groh M., Ruck M. Room-temperature synthesis of the highly polar cluster compound Sn[SnCl][W3Cl13] // Eur. J. Inorg. Chem. 2010. V. 2010. № 33. Р. 5294-5297.

56. Ahmed E., Ahrens E., Heise M., Ruck M.A Facile route for the synthesis of polycationic tellurium cluster compounds: Synthesis in ionic liquid media and characterization by single-crystal X-ray crystallography and magnetic susceptibility // Z. Anorg. Allg. Chem. 2010. V. 636. Р. 2602-2602.

57. Ahmed E., Köhler D., Ruck M. Room-temperature synthesis of bismuth clusters in ionic liquids and crystal growth of Bi5(AlCl4)3 // Z. Anorg. Allg. Chem. 2009. V. 635. Р. 297-300.

58. Guloy A.M., Ramlau R., Tang Z., Schnelle W., Baitinger M., Grin Yu. A guest-free germanium clathrate // Nature.2006. V. 443. Р. 320-323.

59. Pakhomova A.S., Krivovichev S.V. Ionothermal synthesis and characterization of alkali metal polyoxometallates: Structural trends in the (emim)m[An(Mo8O26)] (emim = 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium; m = 2,3; n = 1,2; A = K, Rb, Cs) group of compounds // Inorg. Chem. Commun. 2010. V. 13. Р. 1463-1465.

60. Oganov A.R., Chen J., Gatti C., Ma Y.Z., Ma Y.M., Glass C.W., Liu Z., Yu T., Kurakevych O.O., Solozhenko V.L. Ionic high-pressure form of elemental boron // Nature. 2009. V. 457. Р. 863-867.

61. McMahon M.I., Nelmes R.J., Schwarz U., Syassen K. Composite incommensurate K-III and a commensurate form: Study of a high-pressure phase of potassium // Phys. Rev. B. 2006. V. 74. № 14. Р. 140102- 140106.

62. Narygina O., Mattesini M., Kantor I., Pascarelli S., Wu X., Aquilanti G., McCammon C., Dubrovinsky L. High-pressure experimental and computational XANES studies of (Mg,Fe)(Si, Al)O3 perovskite and (Mg,Fe)O ferropericlase as in the Earth's lower mantle // Phys. Rev. B. 2009. V. 79. № 7. Р. 174115-174125.

63. Wosylus A., Meier K., Prots Yu., Schnelle W., Rosner H., Schwarz U., Grin Yu. Unusual silicon connectivities in the binary compounds GdSi5, CeSi5, and Ce2Si7 // Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2010. V. 49. Р. 9002-9006.

64. Mittal R., Mishra S.K., Chaplot S.L., Ovsyannikov S.V., Greenberg E., Trots D.M., Dubrovinsky L., Su Y., Brueckel Th., Matsuishi S. Ambient- and low-temperature synchrotron X-ray diffraction study of BaFe2As2 and CaFe2As2 at high pressures up to 56 Gpa // Phys. Rev. B. 2011. V. 83. № 5. 054503.

65. Zaikina J.V., Kovnir K.A., Sobolev A.N., Presniakov I.A., Kytin V.G., Kulbachinskii V.A., Olenev A.V., Lebedev O.I., Van Tendeloo G., Dikarev E.V., Shevelkov A.V. Highly disordered crystal structure and thermoelectric properties of Sn3P4 // Chem. Mater. 2008. V. 20. Р. 2476-2483.

66. Ganesan R., Richter K.W., Schmetterer C., Effenberger H., Ipser H. Synthesis of single-phase Sn3P4 by an isopiestic method // Chem. Mater. 2009. V. 21. Р. 4108-4110.

67. Tikhomirov G., Morozov I., Znamenkov K., Kemnitz E., Troyanov S. New volatile nitronium nitratometalates: NO2Fe(NO3)4 and NO2[Zr(NO3)5] synthesis and crystal structure // Z. Anorg. Allg. Chem. 2002. B. 628. S. 269-273.

68. Морозов И.В., Федорова А.А., Паламарчук Д.В., Троянов С.И. Синтез и кристаллическое строение нитратных комплексов Zr(IV) // Известия РАН. Сер. хим. 2005. Т. 54. № 1. С. 92-97.

69. Волкова О.С., Морозов И.В., Лаптева Е.А., Шутов В.В., Васильев А.Н., Клингелер Р., Вюшнер В. Дальний магнитный порядок в моногидрате нитрата меди Cu(NO3)2H2O // Письма в ЖЭТФ. 2009. Т. № 2. С. 98-102.

70. Liang Y., Böhme B., Reibold M., Schnelle W., Schwarz U., Baitinger M., Lichte H., Grin Yu. Synthesis of the clathrate-I phase Ba(8-x)Si46 via redox reactions // Inorg. Chem. 2011. V. 50. № 10. Р. 4523-4528.

71. Neiner D., Okamoto N.L., Yu P., Leonard S., Condron C.L., Toney M.F., Ramasse Q.M., Browning N.D., Kauzlarich S.M. Synthesis and сharacterization of K8−x(H2)ySi46 // Inorg. Chem. 2010. V. 49. № 3. Р. 815-822.


For citation:


Shevelkov A.V. Inorganic synthesis: new tendencies and new potentials. Fine Chemical Technologies. 2012;7(2):3-14. (In Russ.)

Views: 265


ISSN 2410-6593 (Print)
ISSN 2686-7575 (Online)