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New-generation osteoplastic materials based on biological and synthetic matrices

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Objectives. The purpose of this analytical review is to evaluate the market for osteoplastic materials and surgical implants, as well as study the features of new-generation materials and the results of clinical applications.

Methods. This review summarizes the volumes of research articles presented in the electronic database PubMed and eLIBRARY. A total of 129 scientific articles related to biological systems, calcium phosphate, polymer, and biocomposite matrices as carriers of pharmaceutical substances, primary recombinant protein osteoinductors, antibiotics, and biologically active chemical reagents were analyzed and summarized. The search depth was 10 years.

Results. Demineralized bone matrix constitutes 26% of all types of osteoplastic matrices used globally in surgical osteology, which includes neurosurgery, traumatology and orthopedics, dentistry, and maxillofacial and pediatric surgery. Among the matrices, polymer and biocomposite matrices are outstanding. Special attention is paid to the possibility of immobilizing osteogenic factors and target pharmaceutical substances on the scaffold material to achieve controlled and prolonged release at the site of surgical implantation. Polymeric and biocomposite materials can retard the release of pharmaceutical substances at the implantation site, promoting a decrease in the toxicity and an improvement in the therapeutic effect. The use of composite scaffolds of different compositions in vivo results in high osteogenesis, promotes the initialization of biomineralization, and enables the tuning of the degradation rate of the material.

Conclusions. Osteoplastic materials of various compositions in combination with drugs showed accelerated regeneration and mineralization of bone tissue in vivo, excluding systemic side reactions. Furthermore, although some materials have already been registered as commercial drugs, a plethora of unresolved problems remain. Due to the limited clinical studies of materials for use on humans, there is still an insufficient understanding of the toxicity of materials, time of their resorption, speed of drug delivery, and the possible long-term adverse effects of using implants of different compositions.

About the Authors

D. D. Lykoshin
Shemyakin and Ovchinnikov Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences
Russian Federation

Dmitry D. Lykoshin, Engineer, Laboratory of Biopharmaceutical Technologies. Scopus Author ID 57219992166, ResearcherID AAB-1166-2021

16/10, Miklukho-Maklaya ul., Moscow, 117997

V. V. Zaitsev
N.N. Priorov National Medical Research Center of Traumatology and Orthopedics, Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation
Russian Federation

Vladimir V. Zaitsev, Cand. Sci. (Med.), Leading Researcher, Team Leader of osteoplastic materials. Scopus Author ID 56648236900, ResearcherID AAI-4110-2020

10, Priorova ul., Moscow, 127299

M. A. Kostromina
Shemyakin and Ovchinnikov Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences
Russian Federation

Maria A. Kostromina, Junior Researcher, Laboratory of Biopharmaceutical Technologies. Scopus Author ID 55123242300 ResearcherID R-9418-2016

16/10, Miklukho-Maklaya ul., Moscow, 117997

R. S. Esipov
Shemyakin and Ovchinnikov Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences
Russian Federation

Roman S. Esipov, Dr. Sci. (Chem.), Senior Reseacher, Laboratory of Biopharmaceutical Technologies. Scopus Author ID 6701850033, Researcher ID G-4950-2017

16/10, Miklukho-Maklaya ul., Moscow, 117997


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Supplementary files

1. Fig. 1. Undifferentiated stem cells are seeded on a polymer scaffold together with differentiating agents and growth factors, followed by implanting in vivo.
Type Исследовательские инструменты
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2. This is to certify that the paper titled New-generation osteoplastic materials based on biological and synthetic matrices commissioned to us by Dmitry D. Lykoshin, Vladimir V. Zaitsev, Maria A. Kostromina, Roman S. Esipov has been edited for English language and spelling by Enago, an editing brand of Crimson Interactive Inc.
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  • Today, polymer and biocomposite matrices show great application promise, compared to the xenogenic matrix.
  • Particular attention is paid to the possibility of immobilizing osteogenic factors and target pharmaceutical substances on the scaffold material to control the dosage and delivery kinetics.
  • Polymeric and biocomposite materials can retard the release of pharmaceutical substances at the implantation site, reduce the toxicity, and prolong the therapeutic effect.
  • The use of composite scaffolds of different compositions in vivo results in high osteogenesis, promotes the initiation of biomineralization, and allows the tuning of the degradation rate of the material.

For citation:

Lykoshin D.D., Zaitsev V.V., Kostromina M.A., Esipov R.S. New-generation osteoplastic materials based on biological and synthetic matrices. Fine Chemical Technologies. 2021;16(1):36-54.

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