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Investigation of surface tension and contact angles for effective polymer binders based on epoxy oligomers and active diluents

https://doi.org/10.32362/2410-6593-2020-15-3-47-57

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Abstract

Objectives. This study focused on the quantification of the surface tension and the static and dynamic contact angles of epoxy oligomers, active diluents, and their mixtures of various compositions at different temperatures. The active diluents were aliphatic compounds based on glycidyl ethers, namely laproxides and a laprolate of different structure, functionality, molecular weight, and viscosity. Moreover, the preparation of effective polymer binders (matrices) for composites was explored.

Methods. In this study, the epoxy oligomers ED-20 and DER-330, laproxides 201B, DEG-1, E-181, and 703, laprolate 301, and their mixtures in various compositions were investigated. Their surface tension and the static and dynamic contact angles were determined by the Wilhelmy plate and ring methods on a semiautomatic tensiometer at different temperatures (20–60 °C). The static contact angle was measured on a thin aluminum borosilicate glass plate, and the dynamic contact angles were determined using an installation for measuring surface tension developed by NPO Stekloplastik.

Results. The surface tension and static and dynamic contact angles were obtained for all epoxy oligomers and active diluents, as well as for their mixtures at 20–60 °C. For binders based on systems of epoxy oligomers and active diluents, the impregnation rate of fiber reinforcement was also calculated. The introduction of laproxides or laprolates into the epoxy oligomers led to a decrease in surface tension and contact angles, while the increase in temperature increased the impregnation rate by 10–20 times.

Conclusions. The temperature increase from 20 to 60 °C resulted in a decrease in the surface tension of mixed systems of epoxy oligomers and active diluents by almost two times. In addition, the contact angles changed by only 4°–7°, while the impregnation was significantly improved and the corresponding rate increased by 10–20 times.

About the Authors

A. D. Bresskaya
MIREA – Russian Technological University (M.V. Lomonosov Institute of Fine Chemical Technologies)
Russian Federation

Angelina D. Bresskaya, Master Student, Department of Chemistry and Technology of Plastic Processing and Polymer Composites

86, Vernadskogo pr., Moscow, 119571



D. A. Trofimov
MIREA – Russian Technological University (M.V. Lomonosov Institute of Fine Chemical Technologies)
Russian Federation

Dmitry A. Trofimov, Postgraduate Student, Department of Chemistry and Technology of Plastic Processing and Polymer Composites

86, Vernadskogo pr., Moscow, 119571



I. D. Simonov-Emel’yanov
MIREA – Russian Technological University (M.V. Lomonosov Institute of Fine Chemical Technologies)
Russian Federation

Igor D. Simonov-Emel’yanov, Dr. of Sci. (Engineering), Professor, Head of the Department of Chemistry and Technology of Plastic Processing and Polymer Composites. Scopus Author ID 6603181099

86, Vernadskogo pr., Moscow, 119571



S. I. Shalgunov
NPO Stekloplastic
Russian Federation

Sergey I. Shalgunov, Cand. of Sci. (Chemistry), Director of VNIISPV

3-A, Andreevka, Solnechnogorsk district, Moscow oblast, 141551



V. I. Sokolov
NPO Stekloplastic
Russian Federation

Vladimir I. Sokolov, Deputy Director of VNIISPV

3-A, Andreevka, Solnechnogorsk district, Moscow oblast, 141551



References

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2. Antipova E.A., Korotkova N.P., Lebedev V.S. Modern polyurethane, epoxy, PU acrylate and epoxy acrylate binders for industrial coatings manufactured by NPP Macromer LLC. Russian Coatings Journal (Lakokrasochnye materialy i ikh primenenie) 2012;(9):14-21 (in Russ.).

3. Shode L.G., Sorokin M.F., Kuzmin A.I. Glycidyl esters of carboxylic acids and their use. Russian Coatings Journal (Lakokrasochnye materialy i ikh primenenie) 1982;(4):20-23 (in Russ.).

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6. Sidorov O.I., Dubkov K.A., Semikolenov S.V. et al. A Study of the Properties of Unsaturated Polyketone as a Representative of New-Type Reactive Oligomers for the Development of an Adhesive Composition on Its Basis. Polym. Sci. Ser. D. 2018;(11):215-224. https://doi.org/10.1134/S199542121802017X

7. Kryzhanovsky V.K., Burlov V.V., Semenova A.D., Zhorova Yu.V. Study of the effect of laproxides on the physical properties and deformation behavior of epoxy-dianic polymers. Plasticheskie Massy. 2011;(9):29-32 (in Russ.).

8. Trofimov A.N., Apeksimov N.V., Simonov-Emelyanov I.D., Prokhorova Yu.S. Influence of diluents on the kinetics of volumetric shrinkage and stresses during curing of epoxydian oligomers. Tonk. Khim. Tekhnol. = Fine Chem. Technol. 2016;11(6):103-107 (in Russ.). https://doi.org/10.32362/2410-6593-2016-11-6-103-107

9. Senchikhin I.N, Sotnikova E.F, Zhavoronok E.S, Kiselev M.R, Chalykh A.E. Study of the curing of epoxyamine mixtures in the presence of an active diluent by DSC. Uspekhi v Khimii i Khimicheskoi Tekhnologii. 2007;3(71):77-81 (in Russ.).

10. Mezhikovsky S.M., Irzhak V.I. Khimicheskaya fizika otverzhdeniya oligomerov (Chemical physics of curing oligomers). Moscow: Nauka; 2008. 269 p. (in Russ.).

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12. Kiselev V.I., Sokolov V.I., Shalgunov S.I. Method for measuring the surface tension coefficient and static and dynamic contact angles of wetting: RF Pat. 2 244 288 C1, 2004.04.01 (in Russ.).


Supplementary files

1. Dependence of the (a) σ and (b) lnσ parameters of the ED-20–active diluent systems on the content of 1) L-E-181, 2) L-DEG-1, 3) LT-301, 4) L-703, and 5) L-201B at 20℃.
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2. This is to certify that the paper titled Investigation of surface tension and contact angles for effective polymer binders based on epoxy oligomers and active diluents commissioned to Enago by Angelina D. Bresskaya, Dmitry A. Trofimov, Igor D. Simonov-Emel’yanov, Sergey I. Shalgunov, Vladimir I. Sokolov has been edited for English language and spelling by Enago, an editing brand of Crimson Interactive Inc.
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  • The surface tension as well as the static and dynamic contact angles were determined for epoxy oligomers ED-20 and DER-330, laproxides 201B, DEG-1, E-181, and 703, laprolate 301, and their mixtures at different temperatures (20–60°С).
  • When the content of active diluents was increased to 40 vol %, the surface tension decreased 1.5–4 times depending on the laproxide brand. The static contact angle decreased upon the introduction of active diluents into the epoxy oligomer. A 3.5-fold decrease was noted for the ED-20–laproxide 201B system at laproxide 201B content of 40 vol %. Additionally, the dynamic contact angle decreased by 15°–20° when 40 vol % of laproxides or laprolate were introduced into the epoxy oligomers.
  • An increase in the temperature from 20 to 60°С led to a nearly 2-fold decrease in the surface tension for systems consisting of epoxy oligomers and active diluents. The contact angles changed by just 4°–7°.
  • The impregnation rate of the fiber reinforcement containing effective binders based on mixed systems was calculated. A temperature increase in the epoxy oligomers–active diluents systems from 20 to 60°С resulted in a 10 to 20-fold impregnation rate increase.

For citation:


Bresskaya A.D., Trofimov D.A., Simonov-Emel’yanov I.D., Shalgunov S.I., Sokolov V.I. Investigation of surface tension and contact angles for effective polymer binders based on epoxy oligomers and active diluents. Fine Chemical Technologies. 2020;15(3):47-57. https://doi.org/10.32362/2410-6593-2020-15-3-47-57

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ISSN 2410-6593 (Print)
ISSN 2686-7575 (Online)