Preview

Fine Chemical Technologies

Advanced search

Change of electrical characteristics of rubber in the process of “swelling–deswelling”

https://doi.org/10.32362/2410-6593-2020-15-6-56-66

Full Text:

Abstract

Objectives. The main indicator that determines electrical conductivity of rubbers is specific volumetric electrical resistance (ρv ). The purpose of this work is to investigate changes in this indicator during swelling and deswelling of electrically conductive rubbers. When considering the swelling process of rubbers in liquid media at a molecular level, an analogy of this process with mechanical deformation of the material is drawn and common features and differences of these processes are revealed.

Methods. For rubber compositions based on paraffinate and alkyl sulfonate nitrile butadiene rubbers, the degree of their swelling and the change in linear dimensions in heptane and in gasoline grades 80, 92, and 95 were determined. The ρ v value was determined by a potentiometric method: the initial value was measured after temperature control of rubbers for 1 h at 120°C, and the second measurement was carried out after these rubbers were swollen in the solvents for 48 h, followed by drying at 20°C to a constant weight and repeated temperature control under the same conditions. Using an IR Fourier spectrometer, spectra of the solvents used were obtained before and after identification of the investigated rubber samples in them.

Results. It was shown that the type of rubber and solvent used influence the degree of rubber swelling. Rubber compositions based on natural rubbers with a large amount of attached acrylonitrile, obtained in the presence of an alkyl sulfonate emulsifier, have the highest resistance to swelling. The effect of the used solvent on the change in the degree of swelling is determined by its affinity for rubber and the presence of polar additives that increase the octane number of gasoline. It was established that the linear change of the samples upon swelling in the indicated solvents varies according to the length and thickness of the samples. Results show that depending on the type of rubber used and the degree of its filling, the described rubber processing technology leads to a decrease in the ρ v value by 2 to 20 times. The greatest effect of ρ v reduction is observed in low-filled rubber compositions based on paraffinate nitrile rubbers. The spectra of the frustrated total internal reflection of the solvents after their interaction with the studied rubbers show that particulate extraction of dibutyl phthalate, which was used as a plasticizer in rubber compounding, takes place as a result of rubber swelling.

Conclusions. The proposed method of rubber processing reduces the ρ v value by removing dibutyl phthalate from the studied rubbers and forming a more developed carbon–elastomer structure. Furthermore, it solves the problem of the negative effect of the plasticizer on the ρ v value of rubber without excluding it from the rubber composition.

About the Authors

L. A. Kovaleva
MIREA – Russian Technological University (M.V. Lomonosov Institute of Fine Chemical Technologies)
Russian Federation

Lyudmila A. Kovaleva, Cand. of Sci. (Engineering), Associate Professor, F.F. Koshelev Department of Chemistry and Technology of Elastomer Processing

86, Vernadskogo pr., Moscow, 119571



N. Ya. Ovsyannikov
MIREA – Russian Technological University (M.V. Lomonosov Institute of Fine Chemical Technologies)
Russian Federation

Nikolay Ya. Ovsyannikov, Cand. of Sci. (Engineering), Associate Professor, F.F. Koshelev Department of Chemistry and Technology of Elastomer Processing

86, Vernadskogo pr., Moscow, 119571



A. A. Zuev
MIREA – Russian Technological University (M.V. Lomonosov Institute of Fine Chemical Technologies)
Russian Federation

Anton A. Zuev, Cand. of Sci. (Engineering), Associate Professor, F.F. Koshelev Department of Chemistry and Technology of Elastomer Processing; Scopus Author ID 56895792200

86, Vernadskogo pr., Moscow, 119571



References

1. Huang L.H., Yang X., Gao J. Study on microstructure effect of carbon black particles in filled rubber composites. Int. J. Polym. Sci. 2018;2018: Article ID 2713291. https://doi.org/10.1155/2018/2713291

2. Gao M., Zheng F., Xu J., Zhang S., Bhosale S.S., Gu J., Hong R. Surface modification of nano-sized carbon black for reinforcement of rubber. Nanotechnol. Rev. 2019;8(1);405-414. https://doi.org/10.1515/ntrev-2019-0036

3. Robertson C.G., Tunnicliff L.B., Maciag L., Bauman M.A., Miller K., Herd C.R., Mars W.V. Characterizing distributions of tensile strength and crack precursor size to evaluate filler dispersion effects and reliability of rubber. Polymers. 2020;12(1):203. https://doi.org/10.3390/polym12010203

4. Bakošová D. The study of the distribution of carbon black filler in rubber compounds by measuring the electrical conductivity. Manuf. Technol. 2019;19(3):366-370. http://doi.org/10.21062/ujep/297.2019/a/1213-2489/mt/19/3/366

5. Stavropoulos S.G., Sanida A., Psarras G.C. A comparative study on the electrical properties of different forms of carbon allotropes – Epoxy nanocomposites. Express Polym. Lett. 2020;14(5):477-490. http://doi.org/10.3144/expresspolymlett.2020.38

6. Harea E., Datta S., Stěnička M., Stoček R. Electrical conductivity degradation of fatigued carbon black reinforced natural rubber composites: Effects of carbon nanotubes and strain amplitudes. Express Polym. Lett. 2019;13(12):1116-1124. http://doi.org/10.3144/expresspolymlett.2019.96

7. Sancaktar E., Basan S. Comparison of Electrical Conductivity in Compounds of Carbon Black with Natural and Butadiene Rubbers. Front. Mater. 2019;6:265. https://doi.org/10.3389/fmats.2019.00265

8. Reznichenko S.V., Morozov Yu.L. (Eds). Bol’shoi spravochnik rezinshchika. Ch.1. Kauchuki i ingredienty (Great reference book of the rubber-maker. Part 1. Rubbers and ingredients). Moscow: Tekhinform MАI Publishing Center; 2012. 744 p. (in Russ.). ISBN 978-5-89551-023-0

9. Reznichenko S.V., Morozov Yu.L. (Eds). Bol’shoi spravochnik rezinshchika. Ch.2. Reziny i rezinotekhnicheskie izdeliya (Great reference book of the rubber-maker. Part 2. Rubber and rubber products). Moscow: Tekhinform MАI Publishing Center; 2012. 641 p. (in Russ.). ISBN 978-5-89551-025-4

10. Li Y, Zhu P. Zhang Q., Chen B., Zhu Z. Study on the Properties of Rubber with Different Contents of Carbon Black. IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering. 2019;677(2):022043. http://doi.org/10.1088/1757-899X/677/2/022043

11. Al-Sehemi A.G., Al-Ghamdi A.A., Dishovsky N.T., Malinova P.A., Atanasov N.T., Atanasova G.L. Electrical, mechanical and dynamic properties of ternary composites from acrylonitrile butadiene rubber and conductive fillers. Bull. Mater. Sci. 2019;42(4):189. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12034-019-1869-2

12. Ovsyannikov N.Ya., Kornev A.E. Study of the properties of materials obtained by high-temperature processing of rubbers. Kauchuk i rezina. 1997;3:28-30 (in Russ.).

13. Spiridonov I.S., Ushmarin N.F., Egorov E.N., Sandalov S.I., Kol’tsov N.I. Influence technological additives on properties of rubber based on butadiene-nitrile caoutchuc. Izvestiya Vysshikh Uchebnykh Zavedenii, Seriya Khimiya i Khimicheskaya Tekhnologiya. 2017;60(10):53-57 (in Russ.). https://doi.org/10.6060/tcct.20176010.5486

14. Dulina O.А., Tarasenko А.D., Bukanov А.M., Il’in A.A. The influence of the method of rubber isolation from latex on the properties of elastomeric materials based on nitrile butadiene rubbers. Tonk. Khim. Tekhnol. = Fine Chem. Technol. 2017;12(4):85-90 (in Russ.). https://doi.org/10.32362/2410-6593-2017-12-4-85-90

15. Amin L.M.N., Hanafi I, Nadras O. Comparative study of Bentonite filled acrylonitrile butadiene rubber and carbon black filled NBR composites properties. Int. J. Automot. Mech. Eng. 2018;15(3):5468-5475. https://doi.org/10.15282/ijame.15.3.2018.5.0420

16. Maciejewska M., Sowińska A. Thermal characterization of the effect of fillers and ionic liquids on the vulcanization and properties of acrylonitrile–butadiene elastomer. J. Therm. Anal. Calorim. 2019;138(6):43594373. http://doi.org/10.1007/s10973-019-08187-8

17. Ovsjannikov N.Ya., Kornev А.E. Creation of electrical conductivity rubbers by using of carbon black compositions. Tonk. Khim. Tekhnol. = Fine Chem. Technol. 2007;2(4):52-56 (in Russ.).

18. Tarasevich B.N. IK spektry osnovnykh klassov organicheskikh soedinenii (IR spectra of the main classes of organic compounds). Moscow: MGU; 2012. 55 p. (in Russ.).

19. Kovaleva L.A., Ovsyannikov N.Ya., Kornev А.E., Karelina V.N. A method of obtaining a conductive elastomeric material: RF Patent 2472813. Appl. No. 2011142440/05; filed 10/20/2011; publ. 01/20/2013. (in Russ.).


Supplementary files

1. Attenuated total reflection spectrum of AI-95 gasoline before and after interaction with the rubber compositions based on NBR18
Subject
Type Исследовательские инструменты
View (108KB)    
Indexing metadata
2. This is to certify that the paper titled Change of electrical characteristics of rubber in the process of “swelling–deswelling" commissioned to us by Lyudmila А. Kovaleva, Nikolay Ya. Ovsyannikov, Anton A. Zuev has been edited for English language and spelling by Enago, an editing brand of Crimson Interactive Inc.
Subject CERTIFICATE OF EDITING
Type Other
View (269KB)    
Indexing metadata
  • Rubber compositions based on natural rubbers with a large amount of attached acrylonitrile, obtained in the presence of an alkyl sulfonate emulsifier, have the highest resistance to swelling.
  • The effect of the used solvent on the change in the degree of swelling is determined by its affinity for rubber and the presence of polar additives that increase the octane number of gasoline.
  • It was established that the linear change of the samples upon swelling in the indicated solvents varies according to the length and thickness of the samples.
  • The proposed method of rubber processing reduces the specific volumetric electrical resistance (ρv) value by removing dibutyl phthalate from the studied rubbers and forming a more developed carbon–elastomer structure. Furthermore, it solves the problem of the negative effect of the plasticizer on the ρv value of rubber without excluding it from the rubber composition.

For citation:


Kovaleva L.A., Ovsyannikov N.Ya., Zuev A.A. Change of electrical characteristics of rubber in the process of “swelling–deswelling”. Fine Chemical Technologies. 2020;15(6):56-66. https://doi.org/10.32362/2410-6593-2020-15-6-56-66

Views: 151


ISSN 2410-6593 (Print)
ISSN 2686-7575 (Online)